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NIOS Silver Jubilee Year

Basic Animal Husbandry Practices

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Rural Technology

I] Marking of animals for identification


1) It helps in identification of animals. 2) It is useful for convenience of management. 3) It is important for maintaining production and health records.


A] Tattooing B] Ear Notching C] Tagging D] Branding A] Tattooing: It is process of puncturing desired numbers or letter on the inside skin of ear with help of tattoo forceps and then rubbing tattooing ink (Black carbon pigment)on the puncture. ] Ear notching: It is the method of making ‘V’ shape cuts / notches at specific place along the borders of ear with the help of scissor or pincers. C] Tagging: Tagging is the method of fixing tag to the ear / Neck of animal. D] Branding : It is the method of imprinting number or any identification mark on skin of animal by hot iron / chemical or coolant.


Milking is a skillful act of drawing milk from the lactating animal 1) Hand milking: It is the most common method of milking; there are two methods of hand milking a) Stripping or strip milking b) Full hand milking a) Stripping method: In this method, teat is firmly held at the base between thumb and index finger. It is them pulled downward along the length of teat with equal pressure there by milk flows down a strip. The procedure is repeated in quick succession till that quarter of udder is evacuated b) Full hand milking: In this method, teat is held completely in the fist with thumb raised hence method is called as fisting. Base of the teat is firmly held in the ring formed by thumb and fore finger. It is then pulled downward to the tip of teat which causes milk ejection. Avoid holding of teat with thumb bent in against the teat i.e. knuckling. This is wrong method of milking as at may cause injury to teat and teat canal. 2) Machine milking: In this method machine is used for milking instead of hand. Udder and teats are wiped with warm antiseptic solution (550C) half a minute prior to milking. Two to three strips of fore milk are drawn from each teat. Teat cups are then placed on teats. Then the machine is operated at 10 to 15 inches vacuum with a pulsation rate of 50 / minute. The negative pressure created by machine evacuates the milk from udder. Teat cups are removed as soon as milk ceases to flow. Culling Culling is defined as the process of removal of unproductive and undesirable animals from the heard. Culling is very important to run livestock farming in profitable manner. On an average about 10 % of animals from the herd having following undesirable characters should be culled each year. i) Animal having low production. ii) Animal having anatomical defects. iii) Animals having breeding problem like infertility and sterility. iv) Animal having stunted growth. v) Animals having contagious diseases. vi) Animals exhibiting frequent abortions. vii) Old age. viii) Animals having short lactation length and longer dry and inter calving period. ix) Hard milkers.

Drying off

It is process of making a lactating but pregnant cow dry approximately 60 days before calving.

Intext Questions

Match the pairs A B i) Tattooing a) Removal of unproductive animals ii) stripping b) Lactating but pregnant cow dry iii) culling c) method of milking iv) Drying off d) Imprinting the number on skin v) Branding e) Process of puncturing desired numbers /letter inside the ear

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