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NIOS Silver Jubilee Year

Beams and Arches

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Rural Technology

Stones are weak in tension therefore in old temples you will find column are placed close to each other. Construction of big hall was not possible with stones as beam. When man learnt to built arch by arranging the stones, ample progress was made in the construction process. By using this method, Roman people showed their creativity in construction. Afterwards Arab used the same skill in the construction of the mosque. Arch in our temples and village gates were also

constructed by this method. About 600 to 700 years ago in Europian started building elliptical arches instead of rounded one. In stony roof and beams, pressure comes on the beam due to the weight of the roof and it bends at the center. Therefore, limited distances were kept between the two beams. In case of circular arches, pressure is equally distributed and hence, we can keep more distance between the columns. In elliptical arches we can increase this distance further and can construct the stony concave roof. People realized that wood and steel can bear the tension & pressure easily. Therefore, use of Wood and steel started in construction. Architects recognized importance of triangular frames in construction. Triangular frames are stronger than square or pentagon frames.Therefore, architects started making the truss for the roof by joining different sized triangles for small houses. People started using roof tiles on this truss with the support of vertical and horizontal planks. Afterwards method of putting steel or cement sheets on the roof got developed.

Intext Questions

State True or false: i) Stone is strong therefore, always preferred material for beams. ( ) ii) Man started constructing big halls after he learnt to build arches. ( ) iii) Modern construction is far advanced and do not use any of the old construction techniques. ( ) iv) Triangular frames are stronger than square frames. ( )

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Rural Technology