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# Blood Testing

## Objectives

This OER enables you to:

• Identify and list the different types of blood groups.
• Describe and follow the procedure for determining blood group.
• List and select proper tools and material for blood group testing

## Introduction

One day Ganapt; the farmer, while climbing the roof top fell from the ladder and his head was injured.Lot of blood was lost and he was taken to a hospital by his friends in the village.Dr. Chetan of the hospital immediately saw the injuries, checked the blood group of Ganpat and needed blood very urgently of group AB and askedthe villagers to donate.

Everyone wanted to help Ganpat but no one knew their blood group. A nurse in the hospital, sister Karuna, came forward as she was of blood group AB. Because of the blood donated by Sr. Karuna, on time, Ganpat was saved. The villagers wereimpressed by Sr. Karuna and Dr. Chetan and wanted to know their own blood groups so the next time such need arises, they also will be able to donate blood.Thus, Ganpat and the whole villagewent to in the hospital of Dr. Chetan to express their gratitude and satisfy their curiosity. Dr. Chetan was very happy to see their eagerness to know about the blood and the blood group and thereby help people. He explained to them about the blood and the blood groups by showing a PowerPoint presentation.

The farmers understood the importance of blood and the blood groups Doctor: Many times, blood is required for the patients in emergencies. People donate the blood, which is used in the emergency. But you have to know your blood group so that you can donate when required.

Dr. Chetan explained the characteristics of each blood group with the following chart:

## Activity

Fill in the blanks

1. …… blood group is called a universal donor.
( A / B / AB / O )
2. …… blood group is called as a universal acceptor.
( A / B / AB / O )
3. Rh +ve or –ve decision depending on ……….
4. For the following recipients identify the respective donors by typing Y in the appropriate column
Recipient Donor group O Donor Group A Donor Group B Donor Group AB
O
A
B
AB

Now the villagers wanted to know their own blood group. So Sr. Karuna and Dr. Chetan tested their blood group and gave them a card on which their blood group was written. The procedure followed by them is shown here .

## Activity

Arrange the following steps of blood testing procedure in a proper sequence . The villagers then also donated their blood but since there was no emergency case, one of the villagers asked Dr. Chetan ,“What do you do with the blood donated by us or people? Then Dr. Chetan explained about blood bank and its uses. Please click the following link to know more about blood testing and donation

The villagers went happily to their home satisfied that they have helped a good cause.

## Summary

Blood is a mixture of cells and plasma. The heart pumps blood through the arteries, capillaries and veins to provide oxygen and nutrients to every cell of the body. The blood also carries away waste products. The average adult has about five liters of blood; it makes up 7 to 8 percent of a person's body weight. Approximately 2.75 to 3 liters of blood is plasma and the rest is the cellular portion. Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, or O. Also, every person's blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So, if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood is received through an intravenous (IV) line inserted into one of the blood vessels of the person.Blood transfusions are used to replace blood lost during surgery or a serious injury. A transfusion also might be done if a person’s body can't make blood properly, because of an illness. Blood transfusions are very common and blood donation does not affect the health of a person who donates the blood.