Bread Dough preparation
- 1 Concept Map
- 2 Objectives
- 3 Introduction
- 4 Exercise
- 5 Ingredients
- 6 Formulation
- 7 Characteristics of ingredients
- 8 Function of Ingredients in Bread dough making
- 9 Functions of Enzymes
- 10 Summary
- 11 Assignments
This OER enable you to:
- list the essential ingredients to make Bread Dough
- explain the importance of choosing the right type of flour for bread making & the
- proportion of water, Yeast in making bread dough
- use of the steps followed in making bread dough
Mr. Murthy presents an Oven to his wife Sheila. Their daughter Sangeeta is too excited as she is very much interested in cooking and baking. She is also pursuing a course in catering and had watched a T.V.show on bread making. Sangeeta wants to try out ,now that she has the oven.Sheila asks sangeeta about requirement of basic ingredients. Sangeeta takes out the basic ingredients and starts preparing the bread. Let us see how much do you know about the bread and then shall see what all goes in preparing dough for bread.
- Which is the most widely used micro – organism used in preparing fermented dough?
- Which are the three most essential ingredients required to make fermented dough.
- a) water b) yeast c) honey d) flour e) salt d)milk powder
- In large factories how are large quantities of bread manufactured?
The cereal grain most abundantly used for making bread is wheat flour which is processed to get Refined flour. Other grains used are Rye, maize. But its use is limited.To prepare bread dough the basic ingredients required are
- Refine Flour
The refined flour which is obtained from hard wheat which means flour from wheat variety having higher percentage of protein ie. around 12—14% of protein .
The proportion of water to flour is the most important measurement in a bread recipe, as it affects texture and crumb the most.Professional bakers use a system of percentages known as baker's percentage in their recipe formulations. They measure ingredients by weight instead of by volume, because measurement by weight is much more accurate and consistent than measurement by volume, especially for the dry ingredients.
The amount of flour is always stated as 100%, and the amounts of the rest of the ingredients are expressed as a percent of that amount by weight. Common table bread in the U.S. uses about 50% or more of water, resulting in a finely textured, light bread. In yeast breads, the higher water percentages result in more CO2 bubbles and a coarser bread crumb. One pound (450 g) of flour will yield a standard loaf of bread or two French loaves. Once the right kind of flour is chosen the steps involved in making dough for bread making are
Steps involved in preparing bread dough
|1||Sifting||Sieve||To remove impure material if any to incorporate air|
|2||Ferment||Bowl||To multiply yeast cells|
|3||Mixing||Mixing bowl/mixer||To combine ferment + flour +water|
|4||Kneading||Dough||scraper and Flat heavy duty table top or Kneading machine .Thoroughly mixing and by mechanical action develop gluten.|
|5||Fermenting and Knocking||Bowl or Flat Working Top||Bowl or Flat working top To relax the dough and yeast cells to grow and release Co2 gas.To evenly distribute the Co2 gas and make even smooth dough to retain gas.|
Dough before first rising..............................................................................................Dough after first rising
Characteristics of ingredients
• Matured /Aged . The flour which has been stored for some period of time between 10 -15 days is supposed to be matured and improves in colour on storing. Flour bags should be piled off the ground for free air circulation.
• It should not be stored with materials wich may impart it off odor.
• Protein content to be more than 10%. Desired is 12-14% .ie. Strong flour
• Creamy white colour.
• Pleasant smell, slightly sweetish taste.
• Binding power – when squeezed in hand it should form a lump which breaks easily when left.
In commercial bread making fresh yeast known as compressed yeast is used. Compressed yeast should have pleasant aroma like that of a raw apple. Should be firm Springy Moist to touch It should break with a clean and sharp fracture without crumbling. It should not have butter like consistency. When yeast becomes old it becomes brownish in colour, gives, off odour and crumbles when broken . Dried yeast should always be checked for its fermenting quality before being used.
- Any drinking water fit for consumption can be used for bread making.
- Medium hard water is considered most suitable (hardness about 17ppm). In case source of water is very hard it may need change in bread recipe formulation. Amount of yeast to be increased and amount of salt to be reduced to balance the dissolved mineral contents present in very hard water.
- Very soft water is also not desired as it does not allow good gas formation and retention. If such water has to be used, amount of yeast and yeast mineral food requires to be increased.
- Free flowing, devoid of any impurities such as sand, stone particles.
- Sugar Fine grain or powder sugar without any impurities should be used. In bread formula even if sugar is not added , sugar gets formed due to degradation of starch (Carbohydrate) content of the flour .
Butter , Margarine or any other solid fat which is free from any rancid off flavour and of natural colour can be used. Fat is used in the final stage of dough making.
Function of Ingredients in Bread dough making
Refined flour the basic ingredient, is the structural ingredient. The Gluten conetent of it, gives spongy elastic texture . The spring like texture formed by gluten strands helps in holding carbon di oxide gas formed during yeast fermentation. The enzymes present in the four and yeast bring about chemical reaction which produces carbon dioxide gas, small amount of alchohol and water. The enzyme Alpha amylase found in flour gives sheen and eye appeal .To produce bread with desired volume, color,fine cellular texture of the crumb requires controlling and regulating enzymatic reaction taking place at various stages.
The enzymes present in the yeast bring about fermentation activity. The function of yeast is to raise and condition the dough so it turns from a heavy mass into a light porous, elastic product which when baked is appetizing, easily digestible, and nutritious.
Water binds flour particles together . when flour gets wet, gluten gets formed. This unique protein so formed on addition of water to flour is responsible for dough formation . This unique protein called Gluten is responsible for formation of structure of baked products.
Salt imparts taste to bread. It is also one of the important constituent to bring out the flavor in bread. Salt has tightening effect on flour proteins ,it improves the gas retetion power of the dough.salt being hygroscopic in nature helps to keep bread fresh and moist for long time.
The starch component of flour due to enzymatic reaction breaks down to some extent.Even if sugar is not added the sugar formed is made use of by yeast cells as it is food for growthand multiplication. Sugar imparts color, flavor, moistness.
Fat acts as a lubricant on gluten strands, which helps gluten to extend. The extensibility of the dough helps in acquiring good volume. It adds to the nutritional value to some extent.
Functions of Enzymes
During bread dough preparation number of enzymes present in the flour & in yeast take part in giving sheen ,volume, appearance, aroma & structure to the bread. Enzymes are chemical substances, which are protein in nature. They act as a catalytic agent.
Two enzymes namely Alpha amylase & Beta amylase are present in refined flour . These enzymes are responsible for converting starch granules (Carbohydrate) into dextrin & eventually further breaks down into simple simple sugar Maltose. Maltose is made up of two molecules of Glucose. Glucose is the sugar which is acted upon by yest cells to produce carbon di oxide gas.
Converts cane sugar or sucrose or table sugar into simple form of sugar known as invert sugar which is combination of dextrose & fructose.
Converts maltose sugar to dextrose i.e. Glucose which is directly fermentable by yeast.
It is this specific enzyme present in yeast which brings about breaking of dextrose which has been previously produced by the action of Invertase & Maltose.Action of zymase converts the Dextrose? Glucose into carbon dioxide gas, some small amount of Alcohol. Small amount of glycerin, succinic acid , acetic acid,lactic acid . These substances so formed impart the peculiar pleasant, aroma associated with bread.
This enzyme has a mellowing action on flour proteins,which gives stretchability to Gluten (flour protein) formed during Bread dough preparation.This helps in giving volume and forms structure.
Bread is the most popular staple food of the western world. Today it has become popular not only in Indian metro cities but also in rural areas. In India it is known by regional local names such as Paav, Bun,Double Roti Etc. bread making is a science as well as art. It is a science as proportion of ingredients & the sequence followed in making bread plays a major role in the quality of bread produced. It is an art because it uses creativity of an individual to produce variety of shapes, forms. Knowing the characteristics and functions of ingredients which helps in choosing the right type of ingredients,and following the right type of sequence is the key to get Bread of desired quality
Glossary of Terms
- Absorption-Taking in or reception, by molecular or physical action .the property of the flour to hold and absorb moisture.
- Bread Dough- The unbaked fermenting mass of the ingredients used for making bread
- Carbon dioxide -A colourless,tasteless, edible gas obtained during fermentation .
- Crumb -the web like open mesh like interior stricture of bread loaf
- Crust -the dark ribbon like smooth outer lining or layer of the bread
- Fermentation-The chemical changes of an organic compound, due to action of living organism eg. yeast cells
- Gluten-the elastic protein mass that is formed when the protein material of the flour is mixed with water.
- Invert sugar - A mixture of dextrose and levulose produced from sucrose due to action of enzyme or acid.
- Levulose -A simple sugar
- Water Absorption Power (WAP)- The amount of water that is required to produce bread of desired consistency. Flors vary in their ability to absorb water. This depend on type of flour,age of flour, moisture content in flour,storage condition .
- Yeast - Unicellular micro organism which is produced by budding & causes fermentation & produce carbon di oxide.
- Visit local bakery and obtain the sample of bread flour used. Use physical test to assess the type of flour used.
- In the local bakery shop find out different types of bread sold.
- Which are the common optional ingredients used in bread making.