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Classification of Feeds and Fodders

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Rural Technology

The various feeds and fodders used in livestock feeding are broadly classified as: A) Roughages; B) Concentrates; C) Feed supplements and Feed additives. Roughages – Roughages are the feed stuffs which contain more than 18 percent crude fiber and less than 60 percent Total Digestible Nutrients. Due to higher crude fiber content, they are more bulky and have low digestibility as compared to concentrates. 1) Maintenance type – Containing 3-5 percent DCP e.g. Green maize, oat. 2) Non-maintenance type – containing less than 3 percent DCP e.g. Straw, kadbi. 3) Production type – containing more than 5 percent DCP e.g. Berseem, lucerne. (DCP – Digestible Crude Protein) The roughages are further classified into two major group as: 1) Green / succulent roughages – They contain about 60-90 percent moisture eg. Pastures, cultivated fodders, tree leaves, root crops and silages. 2) Dry roughages – They contain about 10-15 percent moisture e.g. Straw, Hay and kadbi.


These are the feedstuffs which contain less than 18 percent crude fibre and more than 60 percent TDN. They are less bulky and have higher digestibility. They are concentrated source of nutrients and therefore, they have higher nutritive value than roughages. The concentrates are further classified as: 1) Energy Rich Concentrates – e.g. Cereal grains, cereal grain byproducts, Roots and tubers. 2) Protein Rich Concentrates – i) Plant origin e.g. Oilseed cake, pulse chuni, Brewer’s grains and yeast. ii) Animal origin e.g. Fish meal, Meat meal, Blood meal

Feed Supplements

Feed supplements are the compounds used to improve the nutritional value of the basal feeds so as to take care of any deficiency. Commonly used feed supplements are 1) Vitamin supplements e.g. Rovimix, Vitablend, Arovit etc. 2) Mineral supplements e.g. Minimix, Milk min, Nutrimilk, Aromin etc.

Feed Additives

Feed additives are the non-nutritive substances usually added to basal feed in small quantity for the fortification in order to improve feed efficiency and productive performance of the animals. Some commonly used feed additives are as below: 1) Antibiotics e.g. Terramycin, Zinc bacitracin, Flavomycin etc. 2) Enzymes e.g. Amylase, lipase, protease, pepsin etc. 3) Hormones eg. Estrogen, progesterone, hexosterol etc. 4) Thyroprotein e.g. Iodinated casein. 5) Probiotics e.g. Microbial species. Lactobacillus. 6) Biostimulators e.g. Extracts of living organs like spleen, liver, ovary, chick embryo etc. 7) Antioxidants e.g. Vitamin E (Tocopherols), BHT ( Butylated hydroxy toluene). 8) Mold inhibitors e.g. Propionic acid, acetic acid. 9) Pellet binders e.g Gur, meal, molasses, sodium bentonite. 10) Coccidiostats e.g. Amprolsol powder, Furasol powder. Intext Questions 1.1

Fill in the blanks

1) are the feedstuff which contain more than 18 per cent crude fibre. 2) are the feedstuff which contain less than 18 per cent crude fibre. 3) are the compounds used to improve the nutritional value of basal feeds. 4) are non nutritive substances used in basal feed to improve feed efficiency. 5) Dry roughages contain percent moisture.

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