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Classification of Field Crops

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Rural Technology

Field crops may be classified in more than one way. It may be on the basis of:

a) climate

b) season in which grown

c) life of crop plant

d) source of water

e) root system

f) economic importance

g) use

h) botanical or morphological similarity.

The important classification of group of field crop is as below: Classification on the basis of climate:- Tropical climate crop – rice, sugarcane Temperate climate crop – wheat, gram Classification on the basis of season Kharif Crops – Crop grown in monsoon season from June to October e.g. Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Groundnut. Rabi Crops – Crop grown in winter season from October to March e.g. Wheat, gram, safflower etc. Summer Crops – Crop grown in summer season from March to June e.g. summer groundnut, water melon, cucumber etc.

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Botanical classification of field crop – Field crop belongs to the big division of plant kingdom spermatophyte. In which reproduction is carried out by the seeds. Within this division the common crop plants belong to the sub-division Angiosperms (ovules are enclosed in an ovary wall.) The Angiosperms are further divided into two classes, the monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous. All grasses, cereals like rice, wheat, jowar, sugarcane are monocotyledonous plants. The legumes or pulses viz. Red gram, green gram, beans are dicotyledonous. (Seeds have two cotyledons) These are further sub-divided into orders, families, genera, species and varieties.
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