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Conductor

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A conductor is a wire or combination of wires not insulated, suitable for carrying electric current is called Conductor.

Conducting Material

The material / substance which permits the free motion of electric current through it is known as conducting material. From these conducting material we makes round and strip shape conductors which are suitable for carrying current in electrical work.

Conductance

The ability of substance which allows to flow of current through it is called’ conductance”. Its symbol is ‘G’. The unit of conductance is ‘Mho’ and its symbol . It is exactly opposite of resistance.

Resistance

It is a property of material which opposes the flow of current through it is called resistance. Its symbol is ‘R’. The unit of resistance is ohm.

Classification of conductors

A conductors are classified in:
(1) With respective Physical Appearance
a) Solid conductor.
b) Stranded conductor.
c) Multistranded conductor.
d) Flexible conductor.
(2) With respective material used
a) Bright electrolyte grade copper.
b) Electrical grade aluminum conductor.
(3) With respective of their property
a) Good conductor.
b) Bad conductor.
c) Non conductor (Insulators).
(4) With respective their shapes
a) Round shape.
b) Strip shape.
c) Rod shape.
d) Rope shape.
(1) With respective Physical Appearance:
a) Solid conductor A single wire is known as solid conductor. They are used in cable, over head wiring and house wiring. It is available in different diameters. Usually the conductor is made up of copper, aluminum and steel.
b) Stranded conductors The group of conductors having small diameter with respective solid conductors are known as stranded conductors. They are used generally because of their increased flexible and consequent case in handling. In stranded conductors 1, 7, 19, 37 strands having 1.13 to 3.73 mm diameter are used.
c) Multistranded conductors Conductors having smaller diameter with respective stranded conductors are known as multistranded conductors. This type of conductors are used in multistranded wires and cables. In multistranded wires 14, 22, 24,84 strands having 0.2 or 0.3 mm diameter are used.
d) Flexible conductors Conductor having smallest diameter with respective multistranded conductors are known as Flexible Conductor. This type of Conductor is used for domestic appliances. In Flexible Conductors 14, 23, 40 strands having diameter of less than 0.2 are used.
(2) With respective of material used
a) Electrical grade copper – Copper has a higher conductivity. It can be drawn out, has relatively high stencil strength and it can be easily soldered. It is more expensive and heavier than aluminum. It is used for wires, cables, bus bars. Now a days, copper wire must be used in house wiring, ranging from 1.5 sq.mm., 4 sq.mm., 6 sq.mm.
b) Electrical grade aluminum – Aluminum has lower conductivity about 60% of copper. It is cheap and lighter than copper. Generally, it is used in transmission and distribution line, bus bar and body of motor etc. They are available in 1 sq.mm. 5 sq.mm., 4 sq.mm.,6 sq.mm. sizes.
c) G. I. Wire – G. I. Wire has a lowest conductivity. It can be drawn out in small gauge. It has very high stencil strength. It is heavier than aluminum and it is used in transmission line, in overhead line and to give strain to pole.
(3) With respective of their property
a) Good conductors – Those conductors which offer very low resistance are called good conductors. Such as silver, copper, aluminum etc. They are used for carrying current from one place to another place.
b) Bad conductors – Conductors which offer medium resistance are called bad conductors. Tungsten, Eureka, Nicrome and Carbon are the bad conductors. They are used for converting electrical energy in heat, light, chemical sound effects.
c) Non conductors – The substances which offers very high resistance to the flow of electric current are called non conductors or insulator.
Porcelain, bakelite, asbestos, glass, rubber and pvc are examples of non conductors. They are used for covering the conductors. Uses of conductors:
1. To carry the current from one place to another place.
2. Making bus bar.
3. For strengthening the pole.
4. Making fuse wire.
5. Making heating wire.
6. Making a connection of appliances to supply.

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