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Dough making

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Concept Map

Dough making conceptmap.png


This OER enable you to:

  • list the basic ingredients required for making dough
  • identify the characteristics of different kinds of dough
  • name the important constituent present in refined flour


The pictures you are seeing are of various types of Indian preparations made using dough. In Western world ‘Bread’ is the common name used, and a large variety of products are made using dough.

     Chapatti.jpg       Phulka.jpg        Paratha.jpg       Bread.jpg
     Chapatti                            Phulka                             Paratha                               Bread


Dough in simplest form is defined as a pasty mass of flour and liquid.


Basic Ingredients for dough making

For preparing dough the ingredient requires are: flour and liquid.Flour is obtained by milling cereals and grains. The flour most abundantly used is the wheat flour. Cereals contain approximately 75% carbohydrate (starch), 10 –15% proteins, and 10-15% water. Small amount of other nutrients like fat, vitamins and minerals. Cereals used for milling are wheat, Rice, Jowar, bajara, etc.

Mostly water is used as a liquid or in combination with other liquid forms such as milk, butter milk, or juices for some specialty items. The amount of water to be added depends on many factors, but on an average good quality of flour will require 55-60% water .Good quality of flour is the one which has been stored for a long time, 4-6 months referred to as matured or aged.

The reason for wide acceptability of wheat flour for making bread, cake, roties, pories etc. is because of its unique protein content called Gluten. Gluten gets formed when flour is made wet. Gluten has the property of forming a spring like texture when dough is made. The action of mixing of flour with water to form a pasty mass is known as kneading. On kneading the mass that gets formed is known as Dough.

Types of Dough

Dough can be of various types. The most common way of categorizing it is either based on

A) Texture { Stiff or soft ) e.g Poories , Roties )

B) Taste (sweet or salty (savoury) e.g. Sweet Poories ,Paratha

In Bakery terminology dough is classified as:

  1. Fermented dough
  2. Unfermented dough

Preparing Dough

Seeta , Meeta , & Neeta have become college friends & are now sharing accommodation in Pune. Seeta is a south Indian, Meeta is a Maharashtrian, & Neeta is a North Indian. They decide to cook dinner every day instead of joining mess. Each one takes turn to prepare meal. One day It’s Seeta’s turn & Meeta & Neeta request her to make poories. Seeta is nervous as she had not seen poories being made at home.

Meeta & Neeta lists the steps for making dough.

o Measure the whole wheat flour say 100gms.

o Measure water around 50 – 55% of the flour

o Mix the flour & water slowly & knead to form stiff dough

o The dough has to be a smooth mass. This is achieved by proper kneading.

(Note: The amount of water required for making dough depends on the quality of wheat flour.)

Video depiction of the steps in preparing dough

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Inkpot.png Assignments

Q. 1 Why is the wheat flour most preferred flour for preparing dough?

Q. 2 Visit a local eatery & find out varieties of wheat preparations made?

Q. 3 Can you identify the type of dough required/ add some more names

Q. 4 Visit a local bakery & find out various types of baked items?

Q. 5 Fill in the blanks

i) The unique protein in wheat flour is the -------. It gets formed when flour is mixed with -------- .

ii) To prepare dough from wheat flour minimum amount of water/liquid required is approx -----%

Answer to Q5: (i) Glueten ,water (ii)55-60 %