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Mindmap.pngConcept Map

Conceptmap fruits.png


This OER enables you to:

  • Identify characteristics of different fruits
  • Classify fruits according to criteria and characteristics
  • Select fruits on the basis of quality, ripeness, texture
  • Decide the suitable methods for storage of specific fruits
  • Incorporate fruit as an ingredient into recipes


Mr. Kanu, a helper in the kitchen, is given a list of a variety of fruits to be purchased from the market. As he buys the fruits, he puts them into the basket he has carried. He picks up strawberries that were required to be used to decorate a soufflé first. He hurriedly collects the other fruits not paying attention to the ripeness or the condition of the fruits. Some of the other fruits he picks up without selecting them are overripe or damaged.
Happy that he has been able to purchase all the required fruits on his list, he hands the basket over to the chef. When the fruits are sorted, the chef is very disappointed and angry. The strawberries at the bottom had been squashed by the weight of the other fruits. Some of the fruits could not be used as they did not match with the quality requirements. This resulted in a lot of wastage. Awareness about how to select and carry the fruits, from the variety of fruits available, knowledge about perishability of fruits would have saved Mr. Kanu from the chef’s anger.

Let us help Mr. Kanu.

Classification of Fruits

Fruits are a commodity which has varied uses in food production. They provide essential nutrients: A person who is recovering from an illness is encouraged to eat fresh fruits like banana, apples, oranges, sweet lime, etc. as a source of Vitamin C. Fruits impart color, flavor and texture when used as ingredients in various recipes like salads, or as garnishes or in fruit flans.

Fruits have a very short shelf-life and therefore care has to be taken while selecting and purchasing them and if they are to be stored.

Criteria for Classification

Fruits are classified on the basis of their structure, texture or the geographical location where they are grown. For example, papaya and mangoes are also classified as tropical fruits. A popular ways of classifying fruit is given below-

     * Pomes or Fleshy Fruits e.g. apples, pears  
     * Drupes or Stone Fruits e.g. Apricots, plums, peaches, cherries
     * Berries or soft fruits e.g. Strawberries, grapes, raspberries, cranberries
     * Citrus Fruits e.g. Oranges, lime, lemon, tangerine, citron, pomegranate
     * Other fruits e.g. Bananas, pineapple, papaya, mangoes
     * Melons eg. Muskmelon, Watermelon

Selection of fresh fruits

Go through the following presentation to know about selection of fruits.

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Please click to start the presentation


  1. Fruits should be preferably kept in a cool and airy store. Low temperatures retard ripening
  2. Soft fruits should be stored in the refrigerator.
  3. Bananas should not be stored at low temperatures as there is darkening of the skin.

Uses in cookery

  1. Served raw : in salads, fruit salads, fruit cocktails, fruit juices
  2. Garnish: used as garnish for salads, main course items, desserts
  3. Fillings for pies, in tarts, puddings, ice-creams, mousse, pastries, flans, soufflés
  4. Preserves : fruits are important ingredients in preparation of jams, jelly, marmalade and candied fruit


  • Fruits are classified as berries, pomes, drupes, citrus fruits, other fruits (including tropical fruits) and melons.
  • It is important to select and store fresh fruits correctly
  • Fruits have varied uses in cookery.


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Inkpot.png Assignments

1. Visit websites or your neighborhood library to get more information on fruits and refer to recipes using fruit as an important ingredient.
Write down at least three recipes for each of the following:
i) Fruit is as an ingredient in desserts eg. Souffles, mousse, puddings
ii) Fruit juices, mocktails, smoothies
iii) In fruit salads and salads
iv) In Pies and flans
2. Visit the local fruit market to observe different kinds of fruits available with respect to their texture, color, composition and
seasonal availability.