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Ground Water

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Rural Technology

While raining some amount water gets evaporated. Some water gets percolated in the ground. If it rains heavily then water gets accumulated and starts flowing toward downward side. Water which gets percolated inside the ground is called ground water. There are sand, soil ,cut stones and rocks on the ground. Rock has cracks in between and water gets percolated slowly through it.

When less water gets percolated ? When more water gets percolated ? 1) When soil particles are small 1) When sand or soil particles are like beach Like (Chiken mati) sand like(Bhusabushit )

2) When land slope is more 2) when land is flat 3) When heavy rain pours in 3) when same rain falls over longer duration of Less time time

Soil and rocks are porous. Water, which enter into it tried to go deep due to gravity. Soil retains some amount of water through capillary action. Extra water goes deep. If the pores are big and well connected to each other then water goes in easily. Permeability of such soil is good. If water come across rocks with no crack, then it doesn’t go much deep.(Permeability less or zero). Then such water gets accumulated. Stock of such ground water is called as Aquifer. The area where water fills the aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone). The top of this zone is called the water table. When a well is drilled it strikes water once it reaches below the water table.

When water percolates under ground and tried to flow through cracks and soil. It flows slowly. The flow of water is measured in meter/day.

Slope of water level and permeability of land : If slope is steep then water will not percolate much , hence permeability of land is less. If slope of water level is 12 to 15 mtr/km then permeability is very less. If slope is 2-6 mtr/km then permeability is very good. In such places water gets percolated easily and comes into the well early.

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