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NIOS Silver Jubilee Year

Health Care

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Rural Technology

Diseases of dairy animals cost farmers heavy financial losses every year. Diseases can cause mortality but more often result in morbidity which causes loss in milk production, consequently resulting in a setback to economic dairy farming.

Important signs of ill health

1) A healthy animal stands with an easy appearance and walks freely without discomfort. An animal standing with its head down or staying apart from the herd are warning symptoms. 2) Healthy animals eat greedily. Loss of hunger, stoppage of eating and rumination is an early warning of the disease. 3) The skin of healthy animals is soft and elastic and the skin coat moves freely over the underlying muscle. Coarse and dry skin with dry and rough hair indicates the presence of diseases 4) The muzzle and nostrils of healthy animals are moist-cool and free from any discharge the muzzle showing dryness is the sign of disease. 5) Variation in body temperature, pulse and respiration from normal values is the sign of ill health 6) Sunken eyes with a fixed stare indicate the onset of fever. Lacrimination from the eyes give an indication of irritation of the eyes or some disease. 7) Two watery or hard dung indicates digestive trouble which may be due to faulty feed, parasites or some disease. If urine is too dark or has sediments and offensive colour is an indication of the disease. 8) Presence of foul discharge like pus from genital organs and tail soiled with dung indicate the animal suffering from disease. 9) Blood, milk clots and whey like substances secreted through the teats is indicative of udder infection Management of sick Animals including first aid The object of first aid is to serve skilled assistance to the affected animals. This will reduce suffering, preserve life, promote recovery of the abnormal condition until the arrival of the veterinary doctor. It also aims to ensure enough peace and comfort to the animals until they reach veterinary hospital.

General principal of first aid:

1) Removing the cause of the disease or injury. 2) Control of heavy hemorrhage (bleeding) 3) Providing plenty of fresh air to the patient. 4) Provision of warmth to control fall in body temperature and shock. 5) Provision of rest by changing the position of the animals to an easy posture. 6) Covering with a clean dressing over all the skin injuries. 7) Keeping the animal calm and quiet by diverting its attention towards some food etc. Common diseases of dairy cattle and buffaloes: 1) Viral diseases – Foot and Mouth, Rinder pest. 2) Bacterial diseases – Hemorrhagic septicemia, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Mastitis, Black Quarter. 3) Non – infectious and nutritional diseases: Bloat, Diarrheas, fever. 4) Common diseases of Calves: White Scour, coccidiosis pneumonia, Navel ill.

Control measures of diseases:

Prevention is better than cure therefore treatment in early stages is more effective. Following preventive measures should be taken to prevent illness. 1) Isolation of animal. 2) Proper disposal of carcass and litter material. 3) Prompt report to livestock authorities about outbreak. 4) Disinfection of calving boxes and sanitation. 5) Personal Hygiene. 6) Quarantine. 7) Timely visit and constant watch. 8) Proper nutrition. 9) Vaccination.

Intext Questions

Match the Pairs A B 1) Pulse rate in cow a) Bloat 2) Viral disease b) 50 – 60 beats / minute 3) Bacterial disease c) 15 – 30 / minutes 4) Respiration rate in buffaloes d) Foot and mouth. 5) Nutritional disease e) Black quarter

What you have learnt

Feeding, Breeding, Weeding and Heeding are the four principles of cattle management. Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Gir, are indigenous milch breeds of cattle. Balanced ration supplies all the essential nutrients to the animal in required proportion, form and quantity for 24 hours. Tail – to tail system and head – to head system are common housing system in cattle. Tattooing, ear notching, Branding, tagging are the identification marks used in identifying the animals. Prevention is better than cure therefore treatment in early stages is more effective for control of diseases in cattle.

Terminal questions

1) Write the characters of exotic breeds of cattle. 2) Enlist the desirable characters of good ration. 3) Write the thumb rule in feeding cattle. 4) Write the points considered in selection of site for a dairy farm. 5) Write short note on 1) Identification marks 2) Culling of animals 3) Important signs of ill health in animals.

Answer to Intext Questions

2.1 1) Sahiwal 2) Red sindhi 3) Gir 4) Deoni 5) Tharparkar 2.2 1) Ration 2) 25-50 3) 1.5 4) Essential 5) 1 Kg 2.3 1) Face out position 2) Face in position 3) Open Paddock 4) Stanchion Barns 2.4 i) Process of puncturing desired numbers letters inside the ear. ii) Method of milking. iii) Removal of unproductive animal. iv) Lactating but pregnant dry cow. v) Imprinting the number on the skin. 2.5 i) 50- 60 beats / minute ii) Foot and mouth iii) Black Quarter iv) 15 – 30 per minute v) Bloat Suggested activity Visit a dairy farm and study cattle management practices.

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Rural Technology