Housing of diary animals
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Selection of site or location for a dairy house The following points should be considered for selection of site and layout of dairy farm:
1) The place should be at a higher place with gentle slope for efficient drainage. 2) Building Should be constructed in north south direction. 3) Water source in the form of well, river, dam should be nearby. 4) It should be well connected to main road. 5) Adequate and continuous electricity supply should be available at the site. 6) It should be away form crowded area i.e. city but accessible to market. 7) It should have cultivable land with good drainage. 8) Regular supply of skilled, reliable, cheaper and honest labour should be available. 9) Good market for selling produce should be nearby.
System of Housing
A) Loose housing system. B) Barn system: I) Tail–to–tail system 1) is the allowance of feed given to animal within 24 hours. 2) Mineral mixture and common salt is added @ gm in feed of animal. 3) Pregnant cows / buffaloes are given kg per day extra concentrate allowance.
Loose housing system
In this system, animals are kept loose in a open paddock except at milking time. At one end of paddock, a covered Shed is provided for shelter. Milking of animal is done in a separate milking barn. Feed and fodder is offered in a common manger. Water is provided in common water tank. Total area is protected by a compound wall or fencing. Bedded area (about 60 sq. ft. / cow) is provided to give comfort to cows. Table Floor space requirement of different age group of cattle
Table Feeding and watering space requirement for cattle and Buffalos
Barn system In this system animals are housed under a shed. Animals are secured with the help of neck chain or stanchions at the manger therefore this method is called as stanchion barns. Each animal is provided with a separate manager in barn. Milking is done in barn itself. On an average 80 -100 cows are housed in one shed depending up to the dimensions of house in single or double cow. Types of Barns a) Tail to tail system : In this system, animals are arranged in a head out manner. There is a common passage between two rows called as central alley. b) Head to Head system In this system, animal are arranged in a head to head manner. There is common feeding passage at center between the rows. ii) Head–to–head systemComparison between tail to tail and head to head Table No.
Components / structures of the farm building
1) Floor It should be made from impervious materials, easy to clean and remain dry and even but not slippery. Cement concrete flooring with grooves or paved with bricks is preferred. A slope of 3cm should be provided from manger towards the gutter. Standing space requirement is 1.5m X 1.2m per cow. 2) Roof Roof should be made up of asbestos sheet. Roof of corrugated iron sheet becomes hot during summer. Height of roof should be 2.4 m at the sides and 4.5 m at the centre to permit sufficient fresh air ventilation inside the house. Roof should be extended beyond wall by 0.75 m. Ventilation continuous ridge (0.3 m wide & 0.2 m above) should be provided in the centre. 3) Manger Width and height of the manger should be 1.0 m and 0.4 m respectively. Height of the rear wall of manger should be 0.8 m. Height of the front wall should be 0.2 m (low front manger) to 0.4 m (high front manger). ) Alleys / working passage a) Tail to tail system: 1) The width of center alleys and feed alley should be 1.5 m to 1.2 m respectively. 2) The central alleys should have 2.5 cm slope form the center towards the gutters running parallel b) In head to head system: the central alleys or feed alley or feed alley or feeding passage should have 1.5 m width. 5) Gutters: a) Width and depth of the gutter should be 0.6 m and 0.2 m respectively. b) Across the length, gutter should have 2.5 m slope to every 3.3 m length. 6) Doors: Height of the door should be 2.1 m; width of door for the single row shed should be 1.5 m and for double row it should be 2.5 m. 7) Wall: The width and height of the wall should be 0.3 m and 1.5 m respectively. The open space 0.9 m should be kept between wall and roof except for a door side.
Match the following: 1) Tail to tail system a) Open paddock 2) Head to head system b) Stanchion barns 3) Loose Housing c) face out position 4) Barn system d) face in position
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