Nursery and Nursery Management
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The importance of the best quality planting material as an initial investment is a well realized factor for persons engaged in Horticulture field. So nurseries have great demand for the production of plants, bulbs, rhizomes, suckers & grafts. But in general good quality & assured planting material at reasonable price is not available. So persons having a skill of propagation of plants can go for this avenue as an agro-business of future.
Definition of nursery
Nursery is a place where plants are grown, nurtured and sold out. Generally, various commercial crop growers require a good quality saplings or grafts of genuine type.
Types of Nurseries –
Nurseries are categorized in different ways. According to time duration nurseries are classified in two types: 1) Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature. Like wise temporary arrangement for growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery. 2) Permanent nursery – This type of the nursery is placed permanently so as to produce plants continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery has permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery. According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types: 1) Fruit plant Nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are developed. 2) Vegetable nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings of cauliflower, cabbage, brinjal and tomato are prepared. 3) Flowers plants nurseries :- The seedlings of flowering plants like gerbera, carnation, petunia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum, coleus, aster, dianthus are developed in this nurseries. 4) Forest nurseries: - The seedlings of plants useful for forestation like pine, oak, teak, eucalyptus, casuarinas are prepared and sold. 5) Miscellaneous nurseries: - In such type of nurseries plants with great economic value, rare and medicinal, herbal plants are propagated. In this nursery plants like geranium, rose, calendula, and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery One has to decide which type of nursery is to be started. At the same time the durations and type of plants propagated should be finalized. Selection of site Site is the basic requirement of a nursery. Site is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of plants. Qualities of a good site are: 1) Nearness of road 2) Near a habitat 3) Suitable climate 4) Neither shady nor exposed area 5) Sufficient sunlight 6) Good irrigation facilities 7) Good soil condition 8) Good transport facility
Management of nursery –
Nursery plants require due care and attention after having either emerged from the seeds or have been raised from other sources like rootstock or through tissue culture technique. Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of mother nature where, they should be able to face the local environment. It is the duty & main objective of a commercial nursery grower to supply the nursery plants with suitable conditions necessary for their development & growth. This is the major work of management in the nursery which includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plantlet till they are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the main fields.
1) Potting the seedling: -
Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting mixture. Now a days different size of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1 proportion. Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and planting of sapling in it.
2) Manuring & Irrigation: -
Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Hence, well rotten F.Y.M / compost and leaf mould is added to soil. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. Addition of fertilizers will give healthy & vigorous plants with good root & shoot system. It is recommended that each nursery bed of 10 X 10m area should be given 300 gm of ammonium sulphate, 500 gm of Single super phosphate and 100 gm of Muriate of potash. Irrigation either in the nursery beds or watering the pots is an important operation. For potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure irrigation by hose pipe is usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided.
3) Plant protection measures: -
Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and diseases regular observation is essential. Disease control in seedbed:- The major disease of nursery stage plant is “damping off”. For its control good sanitation conditions are necessary. Preventive measures like treatment with 50% ethyl alcohol, 0.2% calcium hypo chloride and 0.01% mercury chloride is done. These treatments are given for 5 to 30 minutes. Some of the seed treatment are as follows: i) Disinfection – The infection within the seed is eliminated by use of formaldehyde, hot water or mercuric chloride. ii) Hot water treatment – Dry seeds are placed in hot water having a temperature of 480C – 550C for 10-30 minutes. iii) Protection – In dry seed treatment organo mercuric and non-mercuric compounds like agallal, aretan –6, and tafasan-6. For this the seeds are shaken within the seed container. While in wet method, the seeds are immersed for certain period in liquid suspension. iv) Soil treatment – Soil contains harmful fungi, bacteria, nematodes and even weeds seeds, which affect the growth and further development of plant. These can be eliminated by heat, chemical treatment. For that soil is disinfected by heating to the temperature of about 600C for 30 minutes. v) Chemical treatment – the chemicals like formaldehyde, methyl bromide, chloropicrin, vapam are used. Other diseases like rust, powdery mildew, leaf spot, bacterial blight, yellow vein mosaic are also observed. For control of these diseases Bordeaux mixture, Carbendazime, Redomil can be used. Tricoderma viridi a bio-fungicide can also be tried out.
4) Weed control: -
Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely control of weeds is necessary. For weed control weeding, use of cover crops, mulching, use of chemicals (weedicides) are practiced. Pre-emergence weedicides like Basaline or post-emergence weedicide like 2; 4-D and Roundup are useful.
5) Measures against heat and cold: -
The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low temperature. For protection from strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1 meter height may be used. Net house and green house structures can also be used.
6) Packing of nursery plants –
Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are tied or kept together till they are transplanted. So they have to be packed in such a way that they do not lose their turgidity and are able to establish themselves on the new site. At the same time, good packing ensures their success on transplanting. For packing baskets, wooden boxes, plastic bags are used. In some parts of the country banana leaves are also used for packing the plants with their earth ball. This is useful for local transportation.
7) Sale management –
In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season. A proper strategy should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in local daily newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission agents can be followed.
8) Management of mother plants -
Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good quality propagules and scion. A. Labeling and records B. Certification C. Irrigation D. Fertilization E. Pruning F. Protection from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit Nurseries
Match the followings: A B 1) Disinfection a) Mango nursery 2) Temporary nursery b) Formaldehyde 3) Mother plants c) Tomato seedlings 4) Permanent nursery d) Guarantee of quality 8.10 What you have learnt Propagation is an important technique of multiplying useful plants. We can propagate plants by sexual or by asexual means. Both the methods have certain advantages and disadvantages. So we must select proper method according to our needs and situation. Seed propagation is the simple way of multiplying plants but for plants which do not set fertile seeds we must practice vegetative types of propagation. vegetative methods of propagation are cutting.Layering, grafting, budding and tissue culture. For propagation, medium is an essential factor. We should use proper medium for particular method of propagation and for particular plant. In this lesson we have also studied the nursery and its management. Growing seedlings under proper supervision and care is the prime objective of the nursery. For this we must follow the nursery techniques. 8.11 Terminal questions 1. State the prime reasons for asexual propagation. 2. Which are the methods of vegetative propagation? 3. State characteristics of good medium. 4. State the difference between cutting and layering. 5. Name different types of cutting and layering. 6. Explain advantages of grafting. 8.12 Answer to intext questions 8.1 1. Endangered 2. asexual 3. seeds 8.2 1. vegetative 2. tissue culture 3. citrus 8.3 1. water holding. 2. neutral 3. soil 8.4 1. succulent . woody 3. terminal 8.5 1. sphagnum moss 2. cumbersome. 3. more 8.6 1. bridge 2. inarch grafting 3. shield. 8.7 1) Formaldehyde 2) Tomato seedlings 3) Guarantee of quality 4) Mango nursery
Visit fruit nursery for learning different activities. Visit vegetable nursery for learning different activities. Visit ornamental nursery for learning different activities.
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