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Plant Propagation

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This OER will enable you to,

  • Explain methods of reproduction of plants
  • Calculate seed rate for selected crops
  • Describe process of seed treatment for sowing


This very famous quote tells us the importance of seeds in agriculture. But why seeds are so important, than any other inputs in agriculture business? A simple answer for this is a complete new progeny that is anew plant life starts with a simple seed and that’s the plant propagation.

Importance of plantspropagation :

  1. Multiply the different species in large number.
  2. Protect the plant species which are endangered.
  3. Improve the characteristics and quality of the plants.
  4. Produce quality and healthy plants on commercial base.

Definition of plant propagation

Propagation of plant is defined as production of new individuals from a selected plant having all the characters of the original one.
Is seed cultivation is the only way for reproduction of plants?


Then why are we worried about seeds? Plants are propagated by two methods:

  1. Sexual propagation or seed propagation. Eg rice, wheat, jowar etc…
  2. Asexual or vegetative propagation. like roots, stem, leaf etc.

We are going to see all the details about first method that is sexual method of plant propagation OR propagation by seeds.


Fill in the blanks –

  1. Plant can be divided in two groups as per their propagation methods as ……… & ……….
  2. A plants reproduce by seeds is called as ……………… propagation.

Group discussion – Importance of seed in agriculture. Sexual Plant Propagation / seed propagation –

What is seed?

Seeds can be defined as a dormant plant which develops intoa complete plant when subjected to required environmental conditions. Now if seeds are so important for us then let’s see how seed are produced by plant s. Steps in seed germination are as – Steps in seed germination.png
Above processes are either wholly or in part influenced by the food reserves in cotyledons, supply of water, and oxygen, temperature level,and secretion of enzymes and hormones.

Now, Let’s see advantages and disadvantages of sexual propagation/seed propagation –

Advantages of Sexual Propagation:-

  1. This is very simple and easy method of propagation.
  2. Some species of trees, ornamental annuals and vegetables which cannot be propagated by asexual means should be propagated by this method. E.g. Papaya, Marigold, Tomato etc.
  3. Hybrid seeds can be developed by this method.
  4. New varieties of crops are developed only by sexual method of propagation.
  5. Root stocks for budding and grafting can be raised by this method.
  6. The plants propagated by this method are long lived and can resistance to water stress.
  7. Transmission of viruses can be prevented by sexual method.
  8. Seed can be transported and stored for longer time for propagation.

Can you think disadvantages of seed propagation ?

Disadvantages of sexual propagation:-

1) Characteristics of seedling propagated by this method are not genetically true to type to that of their mother plant. 2) Plants propagated by sexual method requires long period for fruiting. 3) Plants grow very high, so they are difficult for intercultural practices like spraying, harvesting etc. 4) The plants which have no seeds cannot be propagated by this method. E.g. Banana, fig, Jasmine, Rose etc. 5) Many varieties of species of plants are naturally created.

You know many things about seed germination and advantages of seed propagation, let’s see what is mean by SEED RATE

Definition of seed rate

Seed rate refers to number of seeds (Kg) to be used per hector / acre for ensure proper plant density (Plant population) for maximum yield

Calculation of seed rate:

To decide seed rate for cultivation of maize crop, we have to know spacing (that is planting distance) of the maize crop. • Spacing of maize is 0.6 × 0.23 m , so one maize plant will requires 0.138 sq m space to grow. • Now by this rate around 72463 seeds will be required for 1 hector area. (1 ha = 10000 sq m). • Now count 100 seeds of maize crop and weigh them. • If weight of 100 seeds of maize is 28 gm then, weight of 72463 seeds is to be multiplied with weight of 100 seeds. 72463 × 28 / 100 = 20.28 kg. • So seed rate of maize crop will be 20.28 kg / ha. • Please note that above seed rate will be for 100 % germination rate. Therefore first we have to calculate actual germination rate for given seeds and then make correction in calculated seed rate. • So if we got germination rate 90 % then above seed rate by 10 %.


Calculate seed rate for wheat crop for 1 acre area if its spacing is 20 × 5 cm. As we are familiar with germination of seeds, importance of seed propagation, to calculation of germination and seed rate, we are just one step behind sowing our seeds in field. This step is SEED Treatment. Seed treatment and its importance Watch following PPT Seed treatment (Marathi).ppt


Write answer of following in short –

  1. What are the needs of seed treatment?
  2. Which treatment is given for nitrogen fixation? Explain its procedure in the form of flow chart.


  • Propagation is an important technique of multiplying useful plants.
  • Plants are propagated by sexual or by asexual means.
  • Information about seed germination and calculating germination rate and seed rate.
  • Importance of seed treatment.
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