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ICT Applications

Email, discussion groups, long-distance computing, and file transfers are some of the important services provided by the Internet. Email is the fastest means of communication with email one can also send software and certain forms of compressed digital image as an attachment. News groups or discussion groups facilitate Internet user to join for various kinds of debate, discussion and news sharing. Long-distance computing was an original inspiration for development of

ARPANET and does still provide a very useful service on Internet. Programmers can maintain accounts on distant, powerful computers, executive programs. File transfer service allows Internet users to access remote machines and retrieve programs, data or text.

(a) E-Mail (Electronic Mail)

E-mail or Electronic mail is a paperless method of sending messages, notes or letters from one person to another or even many people at the same time via Internet. E-mail is very fast compared to the normal post. E-mail messages usually take only few seconds to arrive at their destination. One can send messages anytime of the day or night, and, it will get delivered immediately. You need not to wait for the post office to open and you don’t have to get worried about holidays. It works 24 hours a day and seven days a week. What’s more, the copy of the message you have sent will be available whenever you want to look at it even in the middle of the night. You have the privilege of sending something extra such as a file, graphics, images etc. along with your e-mail. The biggest advantage of using e-mail is that it is cheap, especially when sending messages to other states or countries and at the same time it can be delivered to a number of people around the world.

It allows you to compose note, get the address of the recipient and send it. Once the mail is received and read, it can be forwarded replied. One can even store it for later use, or delete. In e-mail even the sender can request for delivery receipt and read receipt from the recipient.

(i) Features of E-mail:

 One-to-one or one-to-many communications

 Instant communications

 Physical presence of recipient is not required

 Most inexpensive mail services, 24-hours a day and seven days a week

 Encourages informal communications The media player is loading... (ii) Components of an E-mail Address As in the case of normal mail system, e-mail is also based upon the concept of a recipient address. The email address provides all of the information required to get a message to the recipient from any where in the world. Consider the e-mail ID.

In the above example john is the username of the person who will be sending/receiving the email. Hotmail is the mail server where the username john has been registered and com is the type of organization on the internet which is hosting the mail/ server.

(b) FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

FTP Diagram

File Transfer Protocol, is an Internet utility software used to uploaded and download files. It gives access to directories or folders on remote computers and allows software, data and text files to be transfer between different kinds of computers. FTP works on the basis of same principle as that of Client/ Server. FTP “Client” is a program running on your computer that enables you to communicate with remote computers. The FTP client takes FTP command and sends these as requests for information from the remote computer known as FTP servers. To access remote FTP server it is required, but not necessary to have an account in the FTP server. When the FTP client gets connected, FTP server asks for the identification in terms of User Login name and password of the FTP client (Fig. 3.1). If one does not have an account in the remote FTP server, still he can connect to the server using anonymous login.

Using anonymous login anyone can login in to a FTP server and can access public archives; anywhere in the world, without having an account. One can easily Login to the FTP site with the username anonymous and e-mail address as password.

(i) Objectives of FTP :  Provide flexibility and promote sharing of computer programs, files and data

 Transfer data reliably and more efficiently over network

 Encourage implicit or indirect use of remote computers using Internet

 Shield a user from variations in storage systems among hosts.

(ii) The basic steps in an FTP session  Start up your FTP client, by typing ftp on your system’s command line/’C>’ prompt (or, if you are in a Windows, double-click on the FTP icon).

 Give the FTP client an address to connect. This is the FTP server address to which the FTP client will get connected

 Identify yourself to the FTP remote site by giving the Login Name

 Give the remote site a password

 Remote site will verify the Login Name/Password to allow the FTP client to access its files

 Look directory for files in FTP server

 Change Directories if requird

 Set the transfer mode (optional);

 Get the file(s) you want, and

 Quit.

(c) Telnet (Remote Computing)

Telnet or remote computing is telecommunication utility software, which uses available telecommunication facility and allows you become a user on a remote computer. Once you gain access to remote computer, you can use it for the intended purpose. The TELNET works in a very step by step procedure. The commands typed on the client computer are sent to the local Internet Service Provider (ISP), and then from the ISP to the remote computer that you have gained access. Most of the ISP provides facility to TELENET into your own account from another city and check your e-mail while you are traveling or away on business.

The following steps are required for a TELNET session

 Start up the TELNET program

 Give the TELNET program an address to connect (some really nifty TELNET packages allow you to combine steps 1 and 2 into one simple step)

 Make a note of what the “escape character” is

 Log in to the remote computer,

 Set the “terminal emulation”

 Play around on the remote computer, and

 Quit.

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ICT Applications