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Systems of Breeding

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Rural Technology

There are two main systems of breeding: A) Inbreeding B) Out breeding Inbreeding: It is the mating of related animals. Out breeding: It is the breeding of unrelated animals.

Types of Inbreeding

Close Breeding: - It means the mating of closely related animals than the average of the population e.g. mating of Dam and son or sire and Daughter or full brother and full sister. It should be used if both parents are of outstanding performance. It develops uniform progeny. Line Breeding: - It is mating of distinctly related progeny animal e.g. mating of Grand son and grand daughter or Grand son and Grand dam, half brother and half sister. It promotes uniformity in progeny.

Types of Out breeding

Out crossing: Mating of unrelated purebred animals within the same breed eg. Mating of unrelated Deoni sire and Deoni Cow. It is the best method for genetic improvement of cattle within the breed. Cross breeding: It is the mating of animals of different well established breeds e.g. HF sire x Deoni cow, Murrah buffalo bull x surti buffalo. It is usually practiced to combine desirable characters from different breeds for better productivity. It increases hybrid vigour in the progeny. It is useful in producing new breeds. Grading up : It is mating of purebred sire with non-descript females and their offsprings for generation after generation till the progenies are reaching nearly to 98 to 99% inheritance of original breed. Generally, after 5 to 6 generations the graded animals will be more or less similar to the pure breed animals that have been used for grading. Grading up is mainly used for improvement of non-descript animals e.g. Mating of Murrah buffalo bull with local buffaloes. It helps to develop pure breed after few generations. Species hybridization: It means mating of animals of two different species e.g. Jack (Male ass) x Mare (female horse) – Mule European cattle x American buffalo – Catallo It produces progeny having more vigour and disease resistance than parental species. Progeny is usually sterile.

Intext Questions

Fill in the blanks 1. ___________ is the mating of related animals. 2. ___________ is the breeding of unrelated animals. 3. ___________ and ___________ are the inbreeding systems of mating. 4. ___________ method is used for improvement of non-descript breeds. 5. ___________ mating of animals of two different species.

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