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Types of Construction

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Rural Technology

Following two are the most commonly used construction methods : 1. Wall bearing structures 2. RCC structures

1) Wall bearing construction

In wall or load bearing construction, all load of roof and structure is carried by walls down to its foundation ref. fig.6.2. This type of construction may not use supporting column or wood pillar. The size of walls needs to be bigger to carry all the loads. Further, there is limitation to construct long walls at a stretch. This is typically used in residential or 1–2 storied buildings. This is economical than RCC structure or steel frame structures.

(2) Reinforced cement concrete (RCC)

Most of the high rises building uses RCC techniques. In an RCC framed structure, the load is transferred from a slab to the beams then to the columns and further to lower columns and finally to the foundation which in turn transfers it to the soil. The walls in such structures are constructed after the frame is ready.

Cement concrete is strong in compressive strength but weak in tensile strength. To increase tensile strength we use mild steel bars in cement concrete. Ref.fig 6.3. Steel bars used in cement concrete provide good strength to the structure. Usually steel bars are roughened or corrugated to further improve the bond or cohesion between the concrete and steel. Care must be taken that there should be no joints in steel bars used for RCC work. Therefore, you might have observed that steel used for RCC work is long in length. If full length steel bars are not available, proper overlap should be given in steel bar and overlap should be staggered.

A care must be taken that steel should not disturb during concreting. Steel rods should be properly binded and proper planks or plates must be provided for walking. Curing of all concrete is done at least for 20 days.

Following are the different names of the structural elements in a building as shown in the figure

Slab:

A The flat ceiling of a story is called a ‘Slab’. Beam: The peripheral horizontal members supporting the slab are called ‘Beams’. Plinth Beams: The beams at ground level or plinth level (the lowermost habitable level) are called ‘Plinth Beams’.

Columns:

The vertical members supporting the beams are called ‘Columns’. Foundation: The system below ground transferring the entire load of the structure to the soil is called ‘Foundation’.

Cantilever:

A slab or a beam supported only on one side and projecting horizontally on the other side is called a ‘Cantilever’ slab or beam e.g. balconies, lofts and canopies.

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