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User:Pramodkumartk/Knowledge Based Article

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How to start making OER?

         It is easy to make an Open material . But we have to make a meaningful Open 'Eduational' Resource. Let's try to make use of the following tried and tested model known as ADDIE model

                       

1. Analysis:                                                                                   

           The preparation of OER starts with this first step. During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the learners needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics.Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project. In order to carry out this task, the subject matter needs to be analyzed thoroughly. Secondly, the interest and requirements of the target learners are to be examined carefully to determine the appropriate learning environment. Hence this phase become the base for proceeding to the next phase, that is, design phase.

2. Design:                                                                                             '

          It is a systematic process of specifying learning objectives. The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, and lesson planning and media selection.The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic implies a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals and the term Specific is used for each element of the instructional design plan needs.

3. Development :                                                                              '

          This is the stage of the actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase. In the development phase, the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given. It is a process of creation and testing of learning experiences to find out whether the learning needs and characteristics of the learner been accurately analyzed, whether the problem statement, the instructional goals and the instructional objectives appropriate for the learning needs of the students. It is a form of demonstrated teaching- learning process which is carried out initially in a simulated setting and then in the targeted workspace.

4. Implementation:                                                                                 

During the implementation phase, a procedure for the learners is developed. Negative responses indicate a need for revision. It is the presentation of the learning experiences to the participants. It may involve trying out the best use of interactive learning materials, presenting classroom instruction or administrating the testing tools. It also finds out to what extent are the teaching resources, instructional strategies and the learners’ learning experiences successful in effectively meeting the instructional goals and objectives of the target audience.

5. Evaluation Phase:                                                                         

The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the this process and the summative evaluation is prepared at the end of the learning process in order to test the learning outcomes.


         In short we are going to make use of all the steps of ADDIE Model for development of our OERs 

                                     Try to find out whether you have already thought of all these steps .

What should be the ingredients?

  Once we have followed the above ADDIE model  we should also keep in mind that our OER should be worthwile for learners. We just don't want to create an OER which is not useful for learners. For making our OER efficient let' follow the   Gagne's (1970) nine steps of Instruction 

1. Gain attention.

        Present a problem or a new situation. Use an "interest device" that grabs the learner's attention. This can be thought of as a teaser -- the short segment shown in a TV show right before the opening credits that is designed to keep you watching and listening). The idea is to grab the learners' attention so that they will watch and listen, while you present the learning point. You can use such devices as:
• Storytelling
• Demonstrations
• Presenting a problem to be solved
• Doing something the wrong way (the instruction would then show how to do it the right way)
• Why it is important


2. Inform learner of Objective.

         This allows the learner's to organize their thoughts and around what they are about to see, hear, and/or do. There is a saying in the training filed to 1) tell them what you're going to tell them, 2) tell them, and 3) tell them what you told them. This cues them and then provides a review which has proven to be effective. e.g. describe the goal of a lesson, state what the learners will be able to accomplish and how they will be able to use the knowledge.

3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

This allows the learners to build on their previous knowledge or skills. Although we are capable of having our "creative" minutes, it is much easier to build on what we already know. e.g. remind the learners of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson, provide the learners with a framework that helps learning and remembering.


4. Present the material.

Chunk the information to avoid memory overload. Blend the information to aid in information recall. This allows learners to receive feedback on individualized tasks, thereby correcting isolated problems rather than having little idea of where the root of the learning challenge lies. Bloom's Taxonomy and Learning Strategies( Try to get some information on these aspects) can be used to help sequence the lesson by helping you chunk them into levels of difficulty.


5. Provide guidance for learning.

This is not the presentation of content, but are instructions on how to learn. This is normally simpler and easier than the subject matter or content. It uses a different channel or media to avoid mixing it with the subject matter. The rate of learning increases because learners are less likely to lose time or become frustrated by basing performance on incorrect facts or poorly understood concepts.

6. Elicit performance

Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge

7. Provide feedback

Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's behavior. This can be a test, quiz, or verbal comments. The feedback needs to be specific, not, "you are doing a good job" Tell them "why" they are doing a good job or provide specific guidance.


8. Assess performance.

Test to determine if the lesson has been learned. Can also give general progress information


9. Enhance retention and transfer.

Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.

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In short the OER prepared should cath Atention of the learner . It should be based on the Objective and Prior knowledge of the Learner. Presentation of the OER should be effective and the OERs should be able to do the following functions.

  •   Guidance for learning
  •   Elicit performance
  •   Provide feedback.
  •   Assess performance

If we properly apply ADDIE model by keeping theNine steps given above we will be able to create  O E Rs which will be meaniningful to the learners.


Courtesy : The first OER workshop held at Pune



Copy right : Important Points

( Gist of presentation given by Dr.Savithri Singh)


While using the work of others keep in mind following points related to copyrights.


  • When a work is in the public domain, it is free for use by anyone for any purpose without restriction under copyright law.
  • All jurisdictions allow some uses of copyrighted material without permission. Examples of fair use include commentary, criticism, news reporting, research, teaching, library archiving and scholarship. These usage rights are independent from the license and are not affected or changed in any way.
  • In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:
  1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Important Note: We must … look to the nature and objects of the selections made, the quantity and value of the materials used, and the degree in which the use may prejudice the sale, or diminish the profits, or supersede the objects, of the original work.


The rights of the licensor

  • The licensor has the right to request removal of their name from a work when used in a derivative or collective they don't like.
  • Copyright laws in most jurisdictions around the world grant creators “moral rights” which may provide some redress if a derivative work represents a “derogatory treatment” of the licensor's work.
  • Publicity rights allow individuals to control how their voice, image or likeness is used for commercial purposes in public. Important when transmitting content of anyone other than yourself. This is a distinct and separate obligation from obtaining the copyright license for the works itself, which only gives you a license from the author (or photographer) but not from the subjects.

Creative Commons Licenses

A Creative Commons license does not waive or otherwise affect the publicity rights of subjects . These licenses may be applied to all work falling under copyright, including: books, plays, movies, music, articles, photographs, blogs, and websites and not for software


Commonly used CC licenses

Creativecommons.png


For example, the Creative Commons Attribution (BY) license allows one to share and remix (create derivative works), even for commercial use, so long as attribution is given.


Attribution
  • Include any copyright notices (If the work itself contains any copyright notices)
  • Cite the author's name, screen name, or user ID, etc. If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice to link that name to the person's profile page, if such a page exists.
  • Cite the work's title or name (if applicable). If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice to link the name or title directly to the original work.
  • Cite the specific CC license the work is under (optional). If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice if the license citation links to the license on the CC website.
  • Mention if the work is a derivative work or adaptation, in addition to the above, one needs to identify that their work is a derivative work i.e., “This is a Finnish translation of [original work] by [author].” or “Screenplay based on [original work] by [author].”

About Wiki

Wiki communities believe that content should be free. The slogan of the Mediawiki software, which runs all the projects of the Wikimedia foundation, encapsulates this spirit :


Ideas want to be free.


Wiki software is often cited as an example of social software because of the ease with which users can work together on content, building a real sense of community.\


CONSOLIDATED FEEDBACK FROM THE RESOURCE PERSONS ON OER DEVELOPMENT

Here are some observations made by the experts during the interaction with participants in OER workshops in Pune

A) Format:

   1) Use the format provided during the workshop  for preparation of OER to keep uniformity by the developers.
   2) The OER should have following components: Content Outline, Objectives, Introduction, Main body, Summary and
        Assessment

B) Content Outline

    Content Outline should be the first part of OER. This gives the titles and page numbers.

C) Objective:

1)   Objective should be written in measurable terms keeping in mind the learner.   
      Avoid terms like learner will understand, know etc . Use terms like learner will be    
      able to explain, define etc.  Refer Prof. Veena Deshmukh’s presentation   for   
      more inputs.
 2)  It is better to include at least one skill objective as we are preparing OER for 
      Vocational Courses
 3)   Keep in mind these objectives during the development of OER .
 4)   Assessment of learning should be based on the objectives

D) Introduction:

1) It is better to give a case study or scenario for your introduction to prepare learner 
    for learning .
2) The minimum required previous knowledge may be given during the introduction. 
   Or some links for the learner to learn from outside source can be provided.
3)  Let the introduction be brief without the details of things commonly known to 
   every one.
4) In the introduction learner should know the purpose of learning .

E) Main body:

1) Avoid using copyrighted material. Search for Open material and use the same as 
   per conditions of the licenses.
2) Keep a record of the material you have used from outside sources. In case of a 
   content taken from website mention the Source: URL with date and time of 
   retrieval
3) Create a problem to the learner and slowly and gradually let the learner be   
    involved in the learning. Use effective use of scenario based learning
4) Use Visual/audio object in the Self Learning Material for engagement of the 
   learner. If the same is not available describe the requirement so that same can be  
   added at a later stage. Try to capture images and videos at our own level from the 
   field.
5) Give scope for interactivity through quizzes, puzzles, activities related to the 
   content.
6) Example should be related to our day to day life and related to the common 
   experiences of the learner
7) Present information from authentic sources. If possible mention the source.
8) Give some tasks to the learner for performance.
9) Avoid content prejudicial to caste, religion, region, culture etc. Keep in mind 
   gender equality and avoid gender stereotyping. 
10)Let the OER be short without overloading of different new concepts.

Summary:

  1) Include summary in the OER .
  2) Use various ways of summarizing the unit.
  3) Please give links for additional activities or information wherever necessary

Assessment:

  1) Give some tests for formative assessment towards the end or during different stages of OER
  2) Keep in mind the objectives while assessing the learner
  3) Can give questions which are open leading to creative thinking by the learner.
  4)  In some cases the solution can be given to the learner to understand the 
       performance.
  5) Avoid questions which directly lead to the answer. Objective type questions 
      should be carefully  designed to test different stages of learning.



General Observations:

  1) Be creative and bold.
  2) Avoid being defensive about your work. Accept constructive criticism and work 
      on the same to improve your work