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NIOS Silver Jubilee Year

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1. Addition of the spices in the food allows microorganisms grow quickly.


2. Sterilization increases the activity of the microorganisms.


3. In making of the squashes, we make use of any acid for the preservation.


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1. capital of india

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At the end of this lesson learner will be able to

  1. list essential ingredients to make Bread Dough
  2. explain the importance of choosing the right type of flour for bread making and the proportion of water, Yeast in making bread dough
  3. perform the steps followed in making bread dough


Mr. Murthy presents an Oven to his wife Sheila. Their daughter Sangeeta is too excited as she is very much interested in cooking & baking, and is pursuing a course in catering. She had watched a on bread making. Sangeeta wants to try out ,now that she has the oven. Sheila asks sangeeta what basic ingredients she requires Sangeeta takes out the basic ingredients & starts preparing the bread.Let us see how much do you know about the bread and then shall see what all goes in preparing dough for bread.

Mail and Message Handling

Mail and Message Handling

Content outline:

 	Introduction- Need for this service
 	Sources of mails and messages
 	Types of mails and messages - Incoming and Outgoing
 	Status of guests receiving the mail or message
 	Method to handle incoming mail or message as per guest status
 	Method to handle outgoing mail
 	Records to be maintained
 	Summary
 	Evaluation

Learning Objectives:

On completion of this module, you will be able to

 	Identify the different sources of Mails and Messages 
 	Differentiate between the methods of  handling mails and messages for Past, present and future guests and employees 
 	Fill out the forms and formats used


Very often guests travelling and staying at hotels need to be contacted by their family or their colleagues at their office. The guest might also want to communicate with them .The hotel in such cases acts as an agent for receiving or forwarding such mail or messages.

Sources of Mails and Messages (at the press of the cursor, every time an image with the name should pop up)

Fax Emails Telegrams Telex Letters and Parcels


Mr Zees Secretary wants to send his return journey tickets to Timbuktu to the hotel where he is staying in India. Chose the correct alternative which his secretary can use from the options given below so that Mr Zee can receive the tickets i. Fax or email the ticket to the hotel ii. Send an office assistant to deliver the tickets in person iii. Ask Mr Zee to not return to Timbaktu as he does not have the ticket


Mail that is coming from various destinations to the hotel is called incoming mail. Such mail can be either for guests or for the employees of the hotel. Such Mails and Parcels are first stamped with the date and time of receipt and details like senders name, date of receipt, time of receipt, receivers name etc entered in a register for future record. Sorting mail

All mail and parcels received at the hotel is sorted or separated as for Guests or Hotel Employee. Guest Mail is handed over to the Front office Department and the Employee mail is sent across to the respective departments of the employee for further distribution. Guest Mails and Parcels The Hotel could receive mail or Parcels for

Guest currently staying in the hotel are called in-house or Present guests.(Voice Over) In case the guest is in the hotel then the mail for such guests is either sent to the room with the Bell Boys (Pop up of a bell boy in uniform knocking at the door of a hotel room) or handed over to the guests in person when they come to the Front desk. In case the mail is marked urgent then the guest is immediately contacted whether in the room or on his contact number to inform him of the same .

Guest who have already left the hotel are called as Departure or Past Guests.(Voice Over) If a guest is expecting mail or parcels to arrive at the hotel post his departure the contact details or forwarding address should be asked for from the guest at the time of leaving. In other situations when there is no forwarding address mentioned the contact details on the Registration card (Link to the unit for Registration of guests) are used.

Guests who are expected to arrive at the hotel at a future date are called Future Guests.(Voice over) If the hotel receives any mails or parcels which do not belong to either the Past guests or Present Guests or the employees of the hotel, then the name on the parcel or mail is verified with the Expected Arrival Guest list and once the recipient is identified the mail or parcel kept in the Front Office to be handed over to the guest on arrival.


Arrange in chronological order of association with the hotel. a. Expected arrival- 3 b. Departure Guest- 1 c. In House Guest- 2


In House guests or departure guests may have mail or parcels that need to be posted to the desired destination. Here the Hotel needs to ensure that the correct and complete address of the receiver as well as the contact details of the sender are mentioned clearly on the mail or parcel and the required charges be paid in advance to the hotel.


( animation of conversation between an outside guest and the telephone operator to speak to a guest who is yet arrive at the hotel.)

Many a times when in house guests are out of the hotel on work or when guests are expected to arrive or have already departed, people associated with the guests might want to leave a message or talk to the guest over the telephone. Many a times people can come over to the hotel to meet the guest in person. When the guest is not available for any reason then a MESSAGE needs to be taken on his behalf and then communicated to him or her. Whenever there is a message or a guest, a Message Slip (Pop up of the Message Slip) should be filled out completely and the complete details, name and contact details of the caller should be noted so that the guest can be informed of the same. The message noted should be repeated in order to ensure that the message noted is correct.


Assessment I

Fill out the Slip with the Options given below( Drag and Drop) XYZ HOTEL

Mail forwarding slip

`Please forward the mail arriving for

Dr/ Mr /Mrs /Miss----------------------------------------------

Room No-------------------- during the next---------days in the following address


a. Mrs Neema b. 1234 c. 5 d. 13 December 2000 e. ( signature of Neema)

Assessment 2

Listen to the Audio conversation and fill out the Message Slip given below by dragging the correct option and dropping it in the right space below. (The words in bold to be dragged and dropped into a message slip)

Voice over of a conversation of Telephone Operator and a caller wanting to speak to an In house guest. Telephone Operator :Good afternoon, The West Side Inn , How may I assist You? Caller: Could you connect me to room 1213 Tellephone Operator:whom should I say is calling? Caller:I am Ms Kamala Telephone Operator: Ms Kamala, could you please confirm the name of the guest in room 1213. Caller: Mr Ashfaq Telephone Operator: am Afraid Ms Kamala, But Mr Ashfaq is currently not in his room, Would you like to leave a message for him? Caller: Yes can you please ask him to call me as soon as he is back. TelePhone Operator: Certainly Ms Kamala, May I have your contact number on which You would like Mr Ashfaq to call back? Caller: yes, 21506584 Telephone Oerator- Thank you for calling The West Side Inn.Have a good evening!


Every Hotel would have a certain written procedure for handling Mail and Messages for guests and Employees called as Standar operating Procedures. However it is very important to be able to convey the messages timely and correctly to avoid misunderstandings and confusions. Mail should be delivered to the guest as soon as possible so that the guest is not inconvinienced due to delays.All these services ensure that the guest has a hassel free stay and we would have the guest come back to the hotel as a repeat client.

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  1. HTML stands for: How To Make Lines Hungry Men Talk Lots HyperText Markup Language Hyper Talk Machine Language
  2. The capital of Missourri is: St. Louis Jefferson City Missourri City Omaha
  3. A B C
  4. The of an object is the same anywhere in the universe.


After learning this lesson, you will be able to:

* Get the knowledge of structure and function of a healthy  human body.

* explain the meaning of Anatomy and Physiology.

* list the important systems of human body.

*Explain the functions and contribution of each system.

Test your Previous Knowledge

Try this quiz on the subject:

Example Quiz 1

  1. The lungs and nose are part of which organ system ? Digestive Muscular Respiratory Circulatory
  2. Which two organs in the body are separated by heart? Diaphragm Lung Thyroid Kidney
  3. Which part o the body is surrounded by membrane called meninges? A) Brain B) Stomach C) Kidney
    A B C
  4. The main function of is to remove waste product from the body.

An activity for Students:

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Matching Quiz - Periodic Table

Match the following Symbol to its Element

Mo   A. Gold
Au   B. Arsenic
Md   C. Thallium
Th   D. Mendelevium
As   E. Molybdenum
Ag   F. Thorium
Tl   G. Silver

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Quiz template-1

Example Quiz 1

  1. The lungs and nose are part of which organ system ? Digestive Muscular Respiratory Circulatory
  2. Which two organs in the body are separated by heart? Diaphragm Lungs Thyroid Lungs
  3. Which part o the body is surrounded by membrane called meninges? A) Brain B) Stomach C) Kidney D) Gall Bladder
    A B C
  4. The main function of is to remove waste product from the body.

End of template



         Man is the most intelligent and technologically advance living thing on earth. We have known about our gross body for centuries. Now, in this lesson we will understand how it looks from inside and how it performs its functions. The basic knowledge of structure, size, shape, location and functioning of various organs of the human body is provided by two important subjects-Human Anatomy and Physiology which one must study first to understand our body.


After learning this lesson, you will be able to:

  •  Get the knowledge of structure and function of a healthy  human body.
  •  Understand the meaning of Anatomy and Physiology.
  •  Know the important systems of human body.
  • Explain the functions and contribution of each system.

1.3 Test your Previous Knowledge 

1.4 Anatomy and Physiology

Now, let us find out what does ‘Anatomy’ and ‘Physiology’ mean. Anatomy is the science which deals with the study of normal structure, shape, size and location of various parts of the body. When the study relates to human body it is called human anatomy. For example, when we look at our body we can easily see that it has one face, two hands, two legs etc. and there is skin that  completely covers the body. When we open or see inside our body, what do you observe?

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