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Rural Technology

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This OER enables you to:

  • explain process and history of welding
  • use different metal joints for different purposes
  • select appropriate tools for welding
  • fabricate a job using arc welding.
  • use safety precautions during the welding process.


Introduction - Welding is the most economical and efficient way to joint metal permanently. The forge welding and arc welding are two main types of welding. In forge welding two metal pieces are heated up and then hammered together to form a joint. In arc welding, arc is used to melt the welding rod to fill-up the gap between the welding rods.


Vinay and Ranjan are painters. They got a contract of painting two storied house. They need a ladder for painting the house. Vinay goes to market for purchasing a ladder.
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 Then he goes to IBT School and meets IBT Instructor. 
In IBT School 9th Std. Class-

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 Then the IBT Instructor talks with his students and took the order,

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 Then the instructor explain requirement of customer to students. He gave this task to Amit and Ajay 
of 9th standard.

 Amit and Ajay decide to visit the market to see the different designs of ladder.


Activity 1 – Visit the market and find the design of different ladder.

After visit to the market Amit and Ajay discussed their observation with instructor.
Then instructor shows a PPT of different metal joint-

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After the presentation Amit & Ajay decided to fabricate ladder. They finalized on using Square pipe for making a ladder by using arc welding. They discussed other methods of fabricating ladder and their merits with instructor.

 Amit- Sir, to fabricate low cost and durable ladder what things you will require? 

 Instructor - you need to use arc welding machine, tools and safety gadget.
 Ajay- Sir, do you know who invented welding? 
 Instructor – Welding is invented almost 5500 years ago by a unknown person who hit with this
idea of joining two metals. You can visit the following website for more information
To know more about: What is welding?

The process of joining together two pieces of metal so that bonding accompanied by appreciable interatomic penetration takes place at their original boundary surfaces. The boundaries more or less disappear at the weld, and integrating crystals develop across them. Welding is carried out by the use of heat or pressure or both and with or without added metal. There are many types of welding including Metal Arc, Atomic Hydrogen, Submerged Arc, Resistance Butt, Flash, Spot, Stitch, Stud and Projection.

Activity : Instructor asked Ajay and Amit to visit nearby workshop and list different tools and equipment used in the welding.
Activity 2 – Visit your village welding workshop and prepare a list of Equipments and machineries in that workshop. Find out the specific uses of the gadgets they use for welding.

Instructor discussed with the students about -name, specification and uses of tools used for fabrication.

We have seen arc welding. But in industries other types of welding methods are used. For e.g gas welding, CO2 welding, argon welding etc. Selection of welding type is done based on the material to be joined and quality of welding required. Please see the bellow presentation for more information of welding machine.


Welding is required in many applications from construction, transport to making machines. It offers a good entrepreneurship opportunity for youth. A simple fabrication shop can provide various services to the community. Striking proper arc and putting a solid weld run requires lots of skills. These skills can be achieved by practicing the Welding. Start with simple jobs and maintenance work in place around you. Don’t forget to wear welding screen/goggles and follow safety instructions.

Reference and additional link:

Inkpot.png Assignments

Carry out fabrication of ladder (or any other job) in the workshop. Please use all safety precautions and use safety gadgets while working in the workshop. Remember to keep your tools at proper place and clean the workplace before leaving the workshop everyday! Without practicing good safety and housekeeping habits, you will not become a good welder!

Instruction: You can select any kind of job for learning welding. It must be made for fulfilling need of any customer. Sample jobs can be shoe rack, table, stool, gate, windows, maintenance work etc.