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This OER enables you to:

  • describe the structure and composition of wheat grain
  • justify the use of wheat as a staple food.
  • statethe various bi-products of wheat milling and their uses.
  • identify the type of wheat most suitable for a particular preparation


Pinky has secured admission in C.I.F in Kerala. She belongs to Delhi. She is taking time to adjust to the new place. When asked, what is it that she is missing most; her prompt reply is roti & parathas.

Chapatti.jpg           Paratha.jpg       
     Chapatti                                   Paratha                             

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Importance of wheat:

Wheat is second largest grain crop grown globally & is used in verities of staple food preparation Wheat is a the most widely consumed cereal grain. It belongs to grass family. Wheat is actually a seed .Unlike rice Wheat is not used as it is but is processed. Processing of wheat is known as Milling . On milling flour is extracted which is used in making varities of products like chapatti, Roti, poories, bread, ,paav pizza. Tortillas, pastas etc.Wheat is abundantly grown in the northern regions of our country. That is states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar pradesh, Gujrath . Madhya Pradesh etc The wheat grown in these regions is of good quality hard wheat .The southern states are Rice growing regions. All the coastal area is also rice producing. Wheat is a good source of carbohydrate .Its protein content is having a unique structure .Protein of wheat is known as Gluten. Both carbohydrate & Protein are energy giving nutrients.

Structure of Wheat:

The wheat grain is essentially made up of outer most layer called Bran layer, inside is Endosperm and with a small portion of Germ layer. To see the structure browse to :

Composition of Wheat:

The following table shows the major constituents of wheat grain:

Constituents Percentage
Carbohydrate 70- 75  %
Protein 10-15  %
Water 8-10 %
Vitamins & Minerals small amount

Bi-Products of Wheat and their Uses

Sifters with different mesh measurements are used in the process of wheat milling the following bi-products are obtained which are most commonly used. There are other bi-products like fine broken wheat, Fine semolina, fine bran etc. The fineness or coarseness depends on the mesh of the sifters used.
Biproducts of wheat.png


Visit a market and choose the most appropriate bi- product to prepare each of the following food items. Note the colour and the texture of the selected bi-products and fill in the following chart.

Food Item Name of the Bi- product Colour Texture


Wheat is the second largest staple food for us. Wheat as a cereal contributes to fulfill our energy needs. Its bi-productsare used for making variety of food items.

Inkpot.png Assignments

  • Search to find which variety of wheat suitable for getting the different food items.
  • How would you maintain the nutritional value of wheat while making the food items from it.

Check your Answer for the Activity given above

Food Item Name of the Bi- product Colour Texture
Cake Refined Flour White, shining Fine powder
Porridge Broken wheat (Dalia) Brownish to yellowish Rough /coarse
Poories Whole wheat flour Dull /off-white /creamish Coarse powder
Upma Semolina/Sooji/ Rawa creamish Fine grainy