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ICT Applications

Basic Concepts of Computer

Computer is an electronic device which is used to store the data, as per given instructions it gives results quickly and accurately.

  • Data : Data is a raw material of information.
  • Information : Proper collection of the data is called information.

Characteristics of Computer

  • SPEED : In general, no human being can compete to solving the complex computation, faster than computer.
  • ACCURACY : Since Computer is programmed, so what ever input we give it gives result with accuratly.
  • STORAGE : Computer can store mass storage of data with appropriate formate.
  • DILIGENCE : Computer can work for hours without any break and creating error.
  • VERSATILITY : We can use computer to perform completely different type of work at the same time.
  • POWER OF REMEMBERING : It can remember data for us.
  • NO IQ : Computer does not work without instruction.
  • NO FEELING : Computer does not have emotions, knowledge, experience, feeling.

Computer and its components

Computer : Computer itself a combination of different type of separate electronic device. i.e. Computer only will be computer if it has INPUT DEVICE, PROCESS UNIT, and OUTPUT DEVICE.

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) : It is heart and mind of the computer without this unit computer unable to process.
  • Keyboard : This is an input device which is used to input the data into the computer.
  • Mouse : This is also an input device which is used to input the data into the cmputer.
  • Monitor : This is an output device which is used to show the result of the instructions.

There are variety of monitor available in the market such as, CRT Monitor, LCD Monitor, Touch Screen Monitor, TFT Monitor etc.

  • Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) : This is and electronic device which is used to manage the power supply of computer.
  • Hard Disk (HDD) : This is used to store the data in massive amount. There are so many type of HDD available in the market, i.e. SATA, PATA, External HDD, Internal HDD.
  • Printer : This is an out put device which is used to show the result on the paper. There are plenty of printer available in the market like inkjet, Laser printer, dot matrix printer etc.

Universal Serial Bus (USB) : This is used to connect the external device to the computer.

  • Ethernet Cable : This is used to connect computer with other computer.
  • CD/DVD ROM : This is used to store the data.
  • Speaker : This is an output device which is used to listen voice, songs, etc.
  • Mike : This is an Input device which is used to record the sound .
  • Laptop : This is complete computer which can be carried anywhere any time.
  • Netbook : This is called mini laptop which is generally lighter and smaller than laptop.
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) : This is called primary memory. This is also called main memory of the computer. Whatever data is written in this memory, is lost after switching off the system.
  • Read Only Memory (ROM) : This is called primary memory. Data is written in this memory by the vendor of the computer permanently.
  • Pen Drive : This is very popular device now a days for carrying data on move.
  • Blue Ray Disk : This is same as CD/DVD but only different is it can store multi time of data from CD/DVD and faster than CD/DVD.
  • Scanner : This is an input device which is used to scan the document for the soft copy.
  • LCD : It is known as Liqued Crystal Display. It is an output device as monitor.
  • Motherboard : It is a combination of electronic circuits.
  • Sound Card : This is also a combination of electronic circuits which helps to give out put in the form of sound.
  • Graphics Card : This is also a combination of electronic circuits which helps to give output the data into the monitor.

Computer Software

Software is a logical programme to handle/solve the complex problem.

  • System Software : This is special type of software which is responsible for handle the whole computer system.
  • Application Software : This is special type of software which is used to solve a particular problem.
  • Embeded Software : This type of software embeded with hardware to do a specific type of job.
  • Proprietary Software : In general, this type of software require to purchase to use that particular software for the some time or single user as per conditioned by the vendor of that particular software.

Open Source Software : This type of software may be freely available and can not be use in commercialy. We can modify, and use it under the same licence.

Computer Languages

  • Machine Level Language : This is low level programming languge. Computer or any electronic device only understant this language. i.e. Binary number i.e 0 and 1.
  • Assembly Level Language : This is a low level programming language which is converted into executable machine code by a utility programme referred to as an assember.
  • Hight Level Language : High level language is a programming language which is easly understandable/readable by human.
  • Interpreter : This is a convertor which converts high level language programme to low level language programme line by line.
  • Compiler : This is also a convertor which converts whole high level language programme to low level language programme at a time.

Number System

  • Binary Number System : It has only base 2 i.e 0 and 1
  • Octal Number System  : Base of octal is 8 ie. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Decimal Number System : Base of Decimal is 10 i.e. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  • Hexadecimal Number System : Base of this number system is 16 i.e. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Operating System

  • Windows : This is an Propritary Operating system and vendor is Microsoft. ie. Windows 2007, Windows vista, Windows 2008 etc.
  • Linux : This is an open source Operating System such as ubuntu, fedora, debian, mandriva, centOS etc.

Linux (Ubuntu ) Desktop Elements

File Management in Linux (Ubuntu)

Computer Security

  • Virus and worms : These are the computer programme which malfunction the computer system. Virus requires a carrier while worms does this by itself. Worm does not requires any carrier.
  • Spoofing : Through this, deceiving the computer users and making the fool.
  • Intrusion or Hacking : If a computer is used and controlled by unauthorised users then it is called hacking and who does this is called hacker. Main purpose of hacking to steal the private data or alter the actual data.

Denial of Services: The main aim of this attack is to bring down the targeted nework and make it to deny the service for legitimate users.

Sniffing : Data can be seen and watched when it travels one computer to other computer. Generation of the Computer Charlse Babbase is known as father of computer he has invented first analytical computer in year 1822

  • First Generation (1940 – 1955) . Example : Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) , EDVAC
  • Second Generation (1956 – 1965) : IBM 1401
  • Third Generation (1966 – 1975) : IBM System/360
  • Fourth Generation (1976 – 1985) : Macintosh 128k
  • Fifth Generation (1986 -till date) : Super compuer

The characteristics of computers that have made them so powerful and universally useful are speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage capacity. Let us discuss them briefly.

  • Speed

Computers work at an incredible speed. A powerful computer is capable of performing about 3-4 million simple instructions per second.

  • Accuracy

In addition to being fast, computers are also accurate. Errors that may occur can almost always be attributed to human error (inaccurate data, poorly designed system or faulty instructions/programs written by the programmer)

  • Diligence

Unlike human beings, computers are highly consistent. They do not suffer from human traits of boredom and tiredness resulting in lack of concentration. Computers, therefore, are better than human beings in performing voluminous and repetitive jobs.

  • Versatility

Computers are versatile machines and are capable of performing any task as long as it can be broken down into a series of logical steps. The presence of computers can be seen in almost every sphere – Railway/Air reservation, Banks, Hotels, Weather forecasting and many more.

  • Storage Capacity

Today’s computers can store large volumes of data. A piece of information once recorded (or stored) in the computer, can never be forgotten and can be retrieved almost instantaneously.

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