Essential Managerial Practices round the year
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A) Winter Season (Dec. – Jan. & Feb.)
It is the time of extremely cold temperate and moderately cold temperate in N.W. Region and eastern and southern region. Grazing condition deteriorates due to poor growth of grass. During this period take preventive measures as follows: i) Provide supplementary feeding to ewes and rams. ii) Mature animals are now to be prepared to face the coming mating season. iii) Protection against cold in temperate region.
B) Spring Season (March & April)
I) In Dry northern, Southern and Eastern Region:-
i) Ewes are planned for mating. Estrous in ewes range from 20-42 hours with an average of 30 hours. Ovulation occurs about 24-30 hours after the onset of estrous. If the ewe is not bred or if she fails to conceive, estrous recurs after an interval of about 17 days. ii) Just prior to breeding season shearing of the flocks make them more active and in many cases, will improve their fertility. Sheep are shorn at the end of winter season when warm weather commences and sufficient grazing in the field is available. iii) Dipping at this time of the season is another essential provision for safeguarding sheep for the following reasons:
a) To remove excess of faulty materials and dung from the fleece prior to clipping. b) To cleanse the skin from the products of sweat, shed epithelial scales and other waste materials. c) To erradicate the common parasitic agents such as lice, ticks etc. d) To prevent attack by the sheep blowflies and consequent infestation with maggots. The following is a list of the dips classified according to disease to be treated:- Maggots Any sulphur dip Lice Folidol, Dieldrin Ticks Folidol, arsenic Scab Lime sulphur solution. The dip must be carefully made up according to instructions, and fresh dipping powder and fluid added to make up the loss that occurs from the removal of a small amount upon the fleece of each sheep. In hand bath type of dip, each sheep is lifted individually into the dipping bath, which is usually of wood or concrete about 4 ft long, 3ft 6 inches deep and 1ft 9 inches to 2ft wide, and turned over on to its back. They are held in the bath for about 2 minutes, their heads being immersed at least once. They are lifted on to a draining board when the excess dip is squeezed from the fleeces and runs back into the bath. Two men are required at the bath and one man is usually engaged catching from the collecting pen.
1. For 4 to 5 weeks after service ewes should not be dipped. 2. Sheep should be offered a drink of water before being dipped in hot weather, as there is some risk of thirsty animals drinking the dip. 3. The dip with be repeated at suitable intervals. 4. Due to Entero toxaemia 5-10 percent sheep may die in any season. A vaccine is available for preventive purposes and it is advisable to give two doses at an interval of at least 14 days preferably during spring season.
C) Hot Season (May and June)
Due to scarcity of green grasses, supplementary feeding either as a silage or grain mix is necessary. In temperate region, grasses with continue to grow. In Northern, Southern and Eastern region following operations are suitable:- 1) Proper care of pregnant ewes: - When the flock is large, separate the ewes those are close to lambing. Check the feet for any infection. 2) Steaming up: - As the ewes become heavy in lamb, they will require more nutrients to feed the developing lambs. The feeding of supplementary concentrates during the last two months of pregnancy is strongly recommended. This will lead to stronger and heavier lamb at birth, the ewes will milk better and the risk of pregnancy toxaemia will be considerably reduced. Steaming up feed before lambing:- 8-6 weeks before lambing: - 100g concentrate + usual grazing head/day 6-4 weeks before lambing: - 200g concentrate + usual grazing head/day 4-2 weeks before lambing: - 300g concentrate + usual grazing head/day 2-0 weeks before lambing: - 450g concentrate + usual grazing head/day
Suitable mixture would be:- 1. Cereal grain – 40 parts 2. Barley, Dal or maize – 46 parts.
Wheat bran – 30 parts Sorghum grain – 34 parts GNC or Linseed cake – 30 parts Oil cakes – 20 parts
The feeding supplemental concentrate mixture can be gradually diminished after 8 to 10 weeks of lambing.
Marking may be done at the same time the lambs are docked and castrated. Pure breed lambs are marked so that the sires and dams of any lamb could be known. Marking may be done by Ear notching, Plastic tags and Paint brands. CASTRATION The three methods of castrating lambs are 1) Elastrator and rubber ring. 2) Burdizzo and 3) Surgical removal. D) Rainy Season (July, Aug & September) During this season, there is abundant growth of pastures. The sheep gains maximum body weight. During this period Managerial practices are as follows: Northern, Southern and Eastern Region Temperate region 1) Lambing time, so require special care 1) Preparation of ewes for breeding 2) Care of newly born lambs 2) Deworming of sheep 3) Deworming of all sheep by feeding 3) Pairing of overgrown Anthelmintics hoofs
4) Reseeding of pasture lands 4) Crutching of sheep
E) Autumn Season (October & November)
The condition of grazing land continues to be good. In addition sheep will stubble grazing after harvest of the Kharif crop. Weaning, castration, shearing, dipping and deworming are important aspects of sheep farming at this season. Control of Parasites The important parasites of sheep include stomach worms, nodular worms, lung worms, liver flukes, ticks and lice. Phenothiazine, thiabendazole and tramisol are dewormer used to control stomach and nodular worms. Worming medicine is given two weeks before breeding season to ewe flock and rams. Ticks can be controlled by dipping or spraying malathion. Handling Sheep A sheep should be caught by the nose, flank or by the hind leg. Never catch or hold a sheep by the wool. Since this will bruise the flesh just under the skin. If the left hand is under the Jaw and the right hand on the sheep’s rump, the animal can easily be controlled or nosed over at will.
Match the followings: A B 1) Stomach worms a) Any sulphur dip 2) Ticks and lice b) Furadol. 3) Maggots c) Lime sulphur solution 4) Scab d) Phenothiazine
What you have learnt
Sheep is an important species of livestock in India contributing to food, fibre, rural employment and gross product. Sheep are dependent on natural pastures for maintenance and production. Young tender grasses and leguminous green feeds are relished by sheep. General flock, shed for ram, lambing, sick animal shed, shearing room are essential for housing sheep. The essential managerial practices round the year will help in better management of sheep for food & wool production. 8.8 Terminal Questions i) Write the important exotic breeds of sheep with reference to habitat, characteristics and utility. ii) Write the various structures for housing sheep. iii) Explain the managerial practices round the year in winter, spring and hot season in sheep. iv) Write short notes on: (a) Control of parasites in sheep (b) Handling of sheep
Answer to Intext Questions
8.1 i) Kashmir ii) Spain iii) Karnatak iv) France v) Montgomery 8.2 i) Creep mixture ii) 10-13 % protein iii) 100 gram concentrate mixture iv) 200 gram concentrate mixture 8.3 1. Maternity pen 2. Sheep are shorn 3. Individual pen 4. Adult breeding ewes 5. Shed from weaning to maturity. 8.4 1) Phenothiazine 2) Folidol 3) Any sulphur dip 4) Lime sulphur solution
Visit a sheep farm and study the managerial practices.
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