Feeding of Live Stock
Ration : It is the allowance of feed given to the animal for a period of 24 hours. Balanced ration : It is a ration which supplies all the essential nutrients to the animal in required proportion, form and quantity for 24 hours. Desirable characteristics of good ration. i. Ration should be properly balanced with all necessary nutrients. ii. Ration should include variety of feed stuffs so as to provide better nutrient composition to the body. iii. Ration should include sufficient green fodders preferably legumes. iv. Ration should include palatable and digestible feedstuffs so as to ensure optimum feed intake and maximum nutrient availability. as they may reduce the nutrient availability leading to health disorders, vi. Ration should satisfy the total dry matter requirement of an animal based on weight. vii. Ration should be fairly bulky as it is required for satisfaction of hunger and expulsion of undigested material due to its laxative action viii.Ration should be fresh and free from undesirable weeds and dust. ix. Ration should be properly processed to ensure its desirable intake. x. Ration should be economical as feed accounts to about 60 – 70 % cost of animal rearing. Thumb rule for cattle feeding. Principles of thumb rule 1) The average DM (Dry matter) requirement of desi cow is 2 (dry) to 2.5 (lactating) Kg. / 100 Kg. body weight / day while it is 2.5 (dry) to 3.0 Kg. (lactating) in cross breed cows and buffaloes. 2) The roughage requirement is fulfilled through green and dry fodders, about 2/3 of DM through dry fodder and remaining 1/3 from green fodder 3) The concentrate requirement of animal for maintenance production and pregnancy is as follows : a) Maintenance requirement of desi cow and crossbred cow / buffalo is 1 and 1.5 Kg. respectively. b) Lactating animal should be given 1 Kg. additional concentrate for every 2.5 Kg (Buffalo) to 3 Kg. (Cow) milk produced. c) Pregnant cows. buffaloes should receive 1.5 Kg. per day extra concentrate allowance during advance pregnancy to meet extra need of nutrients for growth of foetus d) Breeding bulls in service should get 1 Kg. per day extra concentrate. Allowance to maintain good health and sex libido. 4) Mineral mixture and common salt each @ 25-50 gm should be given to fulfill mineral requirement of animal. Maintenance Ration It is minimum allowance of ration given to the animal for carrying out its essential body processes at optimum rate without gain or loss in body weight. It is usually given to dry non-producing animals. It roughly satisfies the nutrient requirement for maintenance. Gestation or Pregnancy Ration It is the allowance of ration given to the pregnant animal in addition to maintenance ration during the last quarter of pregnancy. It is given to satisfy nutrient requirement of pregnant animals. It is required for optimum foetal growth. It helps in proper development of udder for future lactation.
Production ration It is the additional allowance of ration given to the animal over and above the maintenance ration for the purpose of production like milk, meat, wool and work. It is given to meet the nutrient losses through milk. It helps to maintain milk production to optimum level Intext questions 2.2 Fill in the blanks 1) is the allowance of feed given to animal within 24 hours. 2) Mineral mixture and common salt is added @ gm in feed of animal 3) Pregnant cows / buffaloes are given kg. per day extra. concentrate allowance. 4) Balance ration supplies all the nutrients to the animal in required portion. 5) Lactating buffalo is given kg. additional concentrate for every 2.5 kg. Milk production.