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In 1969, the U.S. Defence Department funded a project to develop a network, which can withstand the bombing. Basically the idea was to develop a very secure network which can work even after a nuclear attack. This project was known as ARPANET. The proposed network was not supposed to have a central control – which would be an obvious target. Ten years of research brought Local Area Ethernet Networks (LANs) and workstations were developed to get connected to LAN. These workstations and LANs were then connected to the ARPANET. For next decade the ARPANET grew and its decentralized features helped its rapid expansion. Computers connected to ARPANET used to standard or rule to communicate with each other. This standard used by ARPANET is known as NCP (National Control Protocol). Protocol is a network term used to indicate the standard used by a network for communication. But the passing time and rapid change in information technology suppressed NCP and brought TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) in to the world of networking. TCP converts messages into streams of packets at the source, and they are reassembled back into messages at the destination. IP handles the dispatch of these packets. It handles the addressing, and makes sure that a packet reaches its destination through multiple nodes and even across multiple networks with multiple standards. This flexibility of TCP/IP to handle multiple networks with multiple protocols encourages other networks to get connected to ARPANET. Slowly the ARPANET became a massive network of networks and now it is known as ‘Internet’.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/ IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.
Uses of Internet
Internet has been the most useful technology of the modern times which helps us not only in our daily lives, but also our personal and professional lives developments. The internet helps us achieve this in several different ways.
For the students and educational purposes the internet is widely used to gather information so as to do the research or add to the knowledge of various subjects. Even the business professionals and the professions like doctors, access the internet to filter the necessary information for their use. The internet is therefore the largest encyclopedia for everyone, in all age categories. The internet has served to be more useful in maintaining contacts with friends and relatives who live abroad permanently.
Advantages of Internet:
• E-mail: Email is now an essential communication tools in business. With e-mail you can send and receive instant electronic messages, which works like writing letters. Your messages are delivered instantly to people anywhere in the world, unlike traditional mail that takes a lot of time. Email is free, fast and very cheap when compared to telephone, fax and postal services.
• 24 hours a day - 7 days a week: Internet is available, 24x7 days for usage.
• Information: Information is probably the biggest advantage internet is offering. There is a huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every subject, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and conferences, market information, new ideas and technical support. You can almost find any type of data on almost any kind of subject that you are looking for by using search engines like google, yahoo, msn, etc. • Online Chat: You can access many ‘chat rooms’ on the web that can be used to meet new people, make new friends, as well as to stay in touch with old friends. You can chat in MSN and yahoo websites.
• Services: Many services are provided on the internet like net banking, job searching, purchasing tickets, hotel reservations, guidance services on array of topics engulfing the every aspect of life.
• Communities: Communities of all types have sprung up on the internet. Its a great way to meet up with people of similar interest and discuss common issues.
• E-commerce: Along with getting information on the Internet, you can also shop online. There are many online stores and sites that can be used to look for products as well as buy them using your credit card. You do not need to leave your house and can do all your shopping from the convenience of your home. It has got a real amazing and wide range of products from household needs, electronics to entertainment.
• Entertainment: Internet provides facility to access wide range of Audio/Video songs, plays films. Many of which can be downloaded. One such popular website is YouTube.
• Software Downloads: You can freely download innumerable, softwares like utilities, games, music, videos, movies, etc from the Internet.
Limitations of Internet
• Theft of Personal information: Electronic messages sent over the Internet can be easily snooped and tracked, revealing who is talking to whom and what they are talking about. If you use the Internet, your personal information such as your name, address, credit card, bank details and other information can be accessed by unauthorized persons. If you use a credit card or internet banking for online shopping, then your details can also be ‘stolen’.
• Negative effects on family communication: It is generally observed that due to more time spent on Internet, there is a decrease in communication and feeling of togetherness among the family members.
• Internet addiction: There is some controversy over whether it is possible to actually be addicted to the Internet or not. Some researchers, claim that it is simply people trying to escape their problems in an online world.
• Children using the Internet has become a big concern. Most parents do not realize the dangers involved when their children log onto the Internet. When children talk to others online, they do not realize they could actually be talking to a harmful person. Moreover, pornography is also a very serious issue concerning the Internet, especially when it comes to young children. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the Internet that can be easily found and can be a detriment to letting children use the Internet.
• Virus threat: Today, not only are humans getting viruses, but computers are also. Computers are mainly getting these viruses from the Internet. Virus is is a program which disrupts the normal functioning of your computer systems. Computers attached to internet are more prone to virus attacks and they can end up into crashing your whole hard disk.
• Spamming: It is often viewed as the act of sending unsolicited email. This multiple or vast emailing is often compared to mass junk mailings. It needlessly obstruct the entire system. Most spam is commercial advertising, often for dubious products, get-rich-quick schemes, or quasi-legal services. Spam costs the sender very little to send — most of the costs are paid for by the recipient or the carriers rather than by the sender
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