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Economic importance of pregnancy diagnosis It is of great importance to know whether or not a female animal has become pregnant after a service. Pregnancy diagnosis assists in herd management by identifying non-pregnant animals, which can be served again or culled with minimum necessary delay. Such procedure will improve the breeding efficiency and greatly contribute towards the economy of the enterprise. Over and above this, routine pregnancy examination on herd or flock basis is a valid tool for detecting infertility and problems connected with it, at an early stage when it is likely to be amenable to treatment. Pregnancy diagnosis is helpful in proper care and feeding of pregnant animals. Pregnancy diagnosis is also very useful in selling, buying, registration and insurance of animals.
Methods of pregnancy diagnosis. These include clinical, chemical, Microscopical, Radiography and immunological diagnosis. Clinical examination of pregnancy – A majority of cattle owner and veterinarians depend upon this method of examination. The main limitation of this examination is that it cannot be used for very early pregnancy diagnosis in large animal and is not suitable for small animals. The following are the most important symptoms used in diagnosing pregnancy in animals. 1) General sign- These are manifested by alternation in temperament, character, and aptitude, cessation of heat and tendency to fatten. 2) Physical sign – The volume of the abdomen increases as the stage of gestation advances and the mammary gland start developing of about 30-60 days before the date of parturition in heifers and about 15 days in pluriparous animals. 3) Milk test – The milk of the pregnant animals becomes sour, sinks in water and has a high specific gravity. 4) Urine – The salt contents of urine are diminished. 5) Auscultation – The pregnancy can be diagnosed by hearing the sounds of the foetal heart with the help of a stethoscope. 6) Rectal palpation – This is a universal method adopted for pregnancy diagnosis in large animal. A pregnancy of even 40 days can be diagnosed by experienced veterinarians. Chemical Tests There are many chemical tests. Details of some importance are as under: 1) Sodium hydroxide test – Take 10 percent sodium hydroxide solution and put some mucus in it and heat it to boiling point. It will turn orange if the animal is pregnant. 2) Barium chloride test – Take 1 percent barium chloride solution and add urine in equal parts. If there is no precipitation, it indicates pregnancy. 3) Copper sulphate test – Take a saturated solution of copper sulphate and add mucus to it. If mucus turns to a rubber – like paste, it indicated pregnancy. 4) Copper sulphate and milk test – Take 10ml of 3 percent CuSo4 solution and add 1ml of milk to be tested. If there is coagulation, it indicated pregnancy. 5) Glucose fructose estimations in mucus – Higher percentage of fructose in mucus. (110 + 20mg percent) is indication of pregnancy. In non-pregnant animals, the fructose content of mucus is 35+30mg percent Microscopic examination of vaginal mucus The presence of more number of large, nucleated, spherical cells in vaginal mucus smear are indicative of pregnancy.
Immunological Method The presence of hormones in the pregnant animals can be used as a tool for determining the early pregnancy in animal. Progesterone estimation – It is 80 to 90 percent accurate. It can be done in both milk & serum plasma by Radio Immuno Assay technique. The pregnancy can be done as early as 18-23rd day. The levels higher than 4 ng /ml of milk and l ng/ml of plasma are indicative of pregnancy. Radiography Methods There are three methods of which the last two are important:- 1) X-Ray – This is possible only after bone formation. But it can be harmful to the foetus and also to the operator. 2) Ultra-sonography – It is quick, reliable and safe method for pregnancy diagnoses base on feeling of the foetal heart sound. 3) Scanning – This technique can be useful in pregnancy diagnosis of sheep, bitches, cattle and more. In this, the sound waves are projected in the form of images on a screen. A true picture of the embryo or foetus is obtained and thus the age of the foetus can be ascertained by measuring the size of the image. Table : Reproductive Cycle of Cow, Buffalo, Ewe and Goat Intext Questions 4.2 Match the following: A B 1. Clinical examination i) Ultra-sonography 2. Chemical test ii) Progesterone estimation 3. Microscopic examination iii) Barium chloride test 4. Immunological examination iv) Large nucleated spherical cell 5. Radiography method v) Physical signs
4.5 What you have learnt Pregnancy is the condition of female when a developing young is present in the uterus. The gestation period is divided into three parts i.e. period of ovum / Zygote, period of embryo and period of foetus in pregnancy. Pregnancy diagnosis is of great importance to know whether or not a female animal has becomes a pregnant after a service. Pregnancy diagnosis is useful in taking proper care, feeding of pregnant animals, selling, buying, registration and insurance of animals. Pregnancy diagnosis include clinical, chemical, microscopic, immunological and radiographical examination. 4.6 Terminal Questions 1) Write the stages of pregnancy. 2) Explain the economic importance of pregnancy diagnosis. 3) Write about the clinical examination of pregnancy. 4) Explain in brief the chemical tests of pregnancy diagnosis. 5) Write the Radiographical method of pregnancy diagnosis. 4.7 Answer to Intext Questions 4.1 1) 10-12 days 2) endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm 3) 20-30 days 4) three 4.2 1) Physical signs 2) Barium chloride test 3) Large nucleated spherical cells 4) Progesterone estimation 5) Ultra – sonography Suggested activity 1) Visit veterinary center for pregnancy diagnosis.
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