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Processing of Feed Stuffs

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Rural Technology

Various processing methods are being used to increase the voluntary intake, availability of nutrients and Nutritive value of feeds and fodders.

  1. Grinding or Crushing – Cereal grains and certain seeds are grind or crushed to smaller particle size. It increases the surface area for action of digestive enzymes as hard seed coat is broken, thereby increasing the digestibility. Coarse grinding is preferred for grains and seeds.
  2. Chaffing – It is Process of cutting roughages especially fodder crops into smaller size pieces. It minimizes the fodder wastage.
  3. Soaking – Soaking of feeds and fodders in water removes dustiness and softens the coarse feed material. Soaking of straw removes some oxalates. It improves nutritive value of feed stuffs.
  4. Heat treatment – It is applied especially in the production of oil seed cakes. It helps to reduce most of the antinutritional factors present in oil cakes.
  5. Pelleting – Coarsely grinded concentrate feed is mixed with binder substances like sodium bentonite and made into small cylindrical cubes called as pellets. Pelleting of concentrate mixture ensures the intake of all components of feed.
  6. Alkali Treatment – Cereal straw have very poor nutritive value due to presence of poorly digestible components like cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin in higher proportion. Alkali treatment with 3.3 percent NaOH
  7. @ 1 litre/kg of chaffed straw or 5.5 percent CaOH at 40-60 percent moisture. It improves the voluntary intake and digestibility of straw.
  8. Urea treatment – The poor quality roughages like straw or mature grasses are treated with 1-3 percent urea and moisture level is kept at 50 percent level, which is then stacked for 20-30 days till residual ammonia is removed. The urea treatment breaks the lignocelluloses complex and also adds nitrogen to fodder thereby increases its protein value.
  9. Formaldehyde or Tannic acid treatment – This protects the feed protein from microbial action in rumen and directly reaches to small intestine.

Formaldehyde or tannic acid treatment is given to protein rich concentrates like oil seed cakes. The oil seed cakes are made into powder and mixed with formaldehyde @ 5ml/100gm of crude protein of oil cake or 3 percent tannic acid. It is then stored for about 2 weeks in closed container.

Intext Questions

Match the followings A B 1) Chaffing i) Removes oxalates 2) Pelleting ii) NaOH 3) Alkali treatment iii) Sodium bentonite 4) Soaking iv) Oil seed cakes 5) Formaldehyde treatment v) Cutting roughage into smaller size

What you have learnt

Feeds and fodders are broadly classified as Roughages, concentrates, feed supplements and feed additives. Feeding green fodder provides fresh nutrients in their natural form. Unconventional feeds are commonly used during fodder scarcity or shortage with some treatments. Grinding, chaffing, soaking, heat treatment, pelleting, Alkali, Urea, formaldehyde or tannic acid treatment methods are useful for processing of feed stuffs.

Terminal Questions

1) Write the various feed additives used in livestock feeding. 2) Write the importance of feeding green fodder. 3) Explain the various methods used in processing of feed stuffs. 4) Write short notes on: 1) Feed supplements 2) Roughages 3) Concentrates

Answer to Intext questions

1.1 1) Roughages 2) Concentrates 3) Feed supplements 4) Feed additives 5) 10-15 1.2 1) Neem cake 2) Crab meal 3) Sal seed cake 4) Sugarcane tops 1.3 1) Cutting roughages into smaller size 2) Sodium bentonite 3) NaOH 4) Removes oxalates 5) Oil seed cakes

Suggested activities

Visit a cattle feed factory and record different types of feed supplements produced for various categories of cattle/Livestock.

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