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NIOS Silver Jubilee Year


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This OER enables you to :

  • explain the meaning of a stock
  • identify the main components of a stock
  • classify stocks and identify the types of stocks
  • explain the characteristics of a good stock
  • prepare different types of stocks
  • take precautions to be taken during preparation and storage of stocks
  • incorporate stocks into preparation of soups, sauces, gravies, rice, glazes , rice, glazes


Sahil has just joined as a trainee in the kitchen of a specialty restaurant because he has a passion for food production and wants to develop into a professional chef

He is curious about the contents of a particular container which has a bubbling aromatic liquid. He picks up a ladle and puts it in with the intention of seeing the contents. Just then he hears a loud authoritative voice saying, “STOP don’t stir it.” A shocked Sahil was facing a very upset chef Ray who was Sahil’s trainer. Sahil responds apologetically, “I’m very sorry Sir, I hope I not ruined this product” Chef Ray then realizes that Sahil is that very enthusiastic trainee. He tells him, “We shall meet after lunch because I need to talk to you about about this” After lunch a very worried Sahil waits to meet his boss. Chef Ray takes him to a container which has a flavorful, whitish cloudy liquid and tells him, “This is a white stock which has become cloudy because you stirred it. Now I will tell you about stocks which are important foundation liquids that can be incorporated into different recipes.” Sahil feel bad that he is the cause of the stock becoming cloudy. He responds, “I’m sorry again Sir. I would be obliged if you could spare your time and tell me more about stocks” So Chef Ray starts by explaining …….

Definition and Meaning

Stock is defined as a liquid prepared by extracting flavor, nutrients and aroma from the main ingredient (meat and meat bones or chicken bones or fish and fish bones, or vegetables for vegetable stock), vegetables and aromatic herbs. Stocks are important foundation liquids which can be used as an ingredient in different recipes, so as to improve taste, flavor, aroma and nutrients of the finished product. They are thin, clear, highly flavored liquids which are produced by simmering raw ingredients which are later removed.

Components of Stocks

Components of stocks.png

Types of Stocks

Types of stocks.png

Characteristics of good stock

  • Appearance: Clear liquid, free from all traces of fat and solids
  • Color: Either pale and transparent (white stock) or amber (brown stock) or white (fish stock)
  • Flavor : a delicate flavor of the main ingredient, and the herbs

Preparation of Stocks


Fresh bones, free of fat are browned using oil by roasting in an oven at 220 degrees C. Vegetables (mirepoix) are chopped roughly and browned in a pan using oil All excess oil should be removed The procedure for white stock as given below should be followed to prepare the brown stock

Precautions for Brown Stock

Brown to correct stage, as the color of brown stock is because of the extent of browning of the bones and vegetables Ensure that all fat is removed as presence of fat makes the stock cloudy


Place the bones free of fat in a stock pot, cover with cold water and bring to a boil. Remove any scum that rises to the surface. Add mirepoix of vegetables and the bouquet garni and simmer uncovered, removing any scum and fat that rises to the surface. Simmer uncovered for 2 hours (Chicken stock) or 1 hour (Mutton Stock) or 3 to 4 hours (Beef Stock)


Melt butter in a stock pot add the fish bones mirepoix and bouquet garni , cover and sweat to extract juices from the bones but without coloration Cover with cold water , boil, remove impurities that rise to the surface

  • Strain the stock (any type) through a conical strainer, reboil, use or cool rapidly and refrigerate for further use

Precautions for all stocks

Stock turns cloudy if :

 bones are covered with hot water
 impurities and scum are not removed
 simmered in a covered stock pot
 boiled and not simmered
 stirred during simmering
 Simmered for longer time
Fish stock has a bitter flavor and is dark in color when:
 stock overcooked
 ingredients have been over-sweated



Stocks are important foundation liquids which can be used as an ingredient in different recipes, so as to improve taste, flavor, aroma and nutrients of the finished product. There are three types of stocks and the quality of stock is determined by color , flavor and appearance

Inkpot.png Assignments