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ICT Applications

There are five types of internet connections which are as follows:

(i) Dial up Connection

(ii) Leased Connection

(iii) DSL connection

(iv) Cable Modem Connection

(v) VSAT

Dial up connection

Dial-up refers to an Internet connection that is established using a modem. The modem connects the computer to standard phone lines, which serve as the data transfer medium. When a user initiates a dial-up connection, the modem dials a phone number of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that is designated to receive dial-up calls. The ISP then establishes the connection, which usually takes about ten seconds and is accompanied by several beeping a buzzing sound.

After the dial-up connection has been established, it is active until the user disconnects from the ISP. Typically, this is done by selecting the “Disconnect” option using the ISP’s software or a modem utility program. However, if a dial-up connection is interrupted by an incoming phone call or someone picking up a phone in the house, the service may also be disconnected.


• Low Price

• Secure connection – your IP address continually changes

• Offered in rural areas – you need a phone line


• Slow speed.

• Phone line is required.

• Busy signals for friends and family members.

Leased Connection

Leased connection is a permanent telephone connection between two points set up by a telecommunications common carrier. Typically, leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices. Unlike normal dial-up connections, a leased line is always active. The fee for the connection is a fixed monthly rate. The primary factors affecting the monthly fee are distance between end points and the speed of the circuit. Because the connection doesn’t carry anybody else’s communications, the carrier can assure a given level of quality.

For example, a T-1 channel is a type of leased line that provides a maximum transmission speed of 1.544 Mbps. You can divide the connection into different lines for data and voice communication or use the channel for one high speed data circuit. Dividing the connection is called multiplexing.

Increasingly, leased lines are being used by companies, and even individuals, for Internet access because they afford faster data transfer rates and are cost-effective if the Internet is used heavily.


• Secure and private: dedicated exclusively to the customer

• Speed: symmetrical and direct

• Reliable: minimum down time

• Wide choice of speeds: bandwidth on demand, easily upgradeable

• Leased lines are suitable for in-house office web hosting


• Leased lines can be expensive to install and rent.

• Not suitable for single or home workers

• Lead times can be as long as 65 working days

• Distance dependent to nearest POP

• Leased lines have traditionally been the more expensive

access option. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) confirms an ISP’s contractual requirement in ensuring the service is maintained. This is often lacking in cheaper alternatives.

DSL connection

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line. This is possible because DSL uses higher frequency bands for data separated by filtering. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each outlet removes the high frequency interference, to enable simultaneous use of the telephone and data.

The data bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to 40 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction, (the direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. In Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) services, the downstream and upstream data rates are equal.


• Security: Unlike cable modems, each subscriber can be configured so that it will not be on the same network. In some cable modem networks, other computers on the cable modem network are left visibly vulnerable and are easily susceptible to break in as well as data destruction.

• Integration: DSL will easily interface with ATM and WAN technology.

• High bandwidth

• Cheap line charges from the phone company.

• Good for “bursty” traffic patterns


• No current standardization: A person moving from one area to another might find that their DSL modem is just another paperweight. Customers may have to buy new equipment to simply change ISPs.

• Expensive: Most customers are not willing to spend more than $20 to $25 per month for Internet access. Current installation costs, including the modem, can be as high as $750. Prices should come down within 1-3 years. As with all computer technology, being first usually means an emptier wallet.

• Distance Dependence: The farther you live from the DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer), the lower the data rate. The longest run lengths are 18,000 feet, or a little over 3 miles.

Cable Modem Connection

A cable modem is a type of Network Bridge and modem that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a HFC and RFoG infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a HFC and RFoG network. They are commonly deployed in Australia, Europe, Asia and Americas.

Cable Modem Connection

Figure 3.2 shows the most common network connection topologies when using cable modems. The cable TV company runs a coaxial cable into the building to deliver their Internet service. Although fed from the same coax that provides cable TV service, most companies place a splitter outside of the building and runs two cables in, rather than using a splitter at the set-top box. The coax terminates at the cable modem.

The cable modem itself attaches to the SOHO computing equipment via its 10BASE-T port. In most circumstances, the cable modem attaches directly to a user’s computer. If a LAN is present on the premises (something many cable companies frown upon), some sort of router can be connected to the cable modem.

Advantages • Always Connected: A cable modem connection is always connected to the Internet. This is advantageous because you do not have to wait for your computer to “log on” to the Internet; however, this also has the disadvantage of making your computer more vulnerable to hackers. Broadband: Cable modems transmit and receive data as digital packets, meaning they provide high-speed Internet access. This makes cable modem connections much faster than traditional dial-up connections.

Fig.3.2 : Cable modem connection

• Bandwidth: Cable modems have the potential to receive data from their cable provider at speeds greater than 30 megabits per second; unfortunately, this speed is rarely ever realized. Cable lines are shared by all of the cable modem users in a given area; thus, the connection speed varies depending upon the number of other people using the Internet and the amount of data they are receiving or transmitting.

• File Transfer Capabilities: Downloads may be faster, but uploads are typically slower. Since the same lines are used to transmit data to and from the modem, priority is often given to data traveling in one direction.

• Signal Integrity: Cable Internet can be transmitted long distances with little signal degradation. This means the quality of the Internet signal is not significantly decreased by the distance of the modem from the cable provider.

• Routing: Cable routers allow multiple computers to be hooked up to one cable modem, allowing several devices to be directly connected through a single modem. Wireless routers can also be attached to your cable modem.

• Rely on Existing Connections: Cable modems connect directly to preinstalled cable lines. This is advantageous because you do not need to have other services, such as telephone or Internet, in order to receive Internet through your cable modem. The disadvantage is that you cannot have cable internet in areas where there are no cable lines.


• Cable internet technology excels at maintaining signal strength over distance. Once it is delivered to a region, however, such as a neighborhood, it is split among that regions subscribers. While increased capacity has diminished the effect somewhat, it is still possible that users will see significantly lower speeds at peak times when more people are using the shared connection.

• Bandwidth equals money, so cable’s advantage in throughput comes with a price. Even in plans of similar speeds compared with DSL, customers spend more per Mb with cable than they do with DSL.

• It’s hard to imagine, but there are still pockets of the United States without adequate cable television service. There are far fewer such pockets without residential land-line service meaning cable internet is on balance less accessible in remote areas.


Short for very small aperture terminal, an earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT consists of two parts, a transceiver that is placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user’s communications device, such as a PC. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system. Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network. For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission has to first go to the hub station that then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user’s VSAT.


Satellite communication systems have some advantages that can be exploited for the provision of connectivity. These are:

• Costs Insensitive to Distance

• Single Platform service delivery (one-stop-shop)

• Flexibility

• Upgradeable

• Low incremental costs per unit


However like all systems there are disadvantages also. Some of these are

• High start-up costs (hubs and basic elements must be in place before the services can be provided)

• Higher than normal risk profiles

• Severe regulatory restrictions imposed by countries that prevent VSAT networks and solutions from reaching critical mass and therefore profitability

• Some service quality limitations such the high signal delays (latency)

• Natural availability limits that cannot be mitigated against

• Lack of skills required in the developing world to design, install and maintain satellite communication systems adequately

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